history of india

 

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This article is about the history of the Indian subcontinent prior to the partition of India in 1947. For the modern Republic of India, see History of the Republic of India. For Pakistan and Bangladesh, see History of Pakistan and History of Bangladesh.
“Indian history” redirects here. For other uses, see Native American history.
Part of a series on the
History of India
Ajanta Padmapani.jpg
Chronology of Indian history
Ancient India
 Prehistoric India and Vedic India
ReligionsSocietyMahajanapadas
Mauryan Period
EconomySpread of Buddhism,
ChanakyaSatavahana Empire
The Golden Age
DiscoveriesAryabhata,
RamayanaMahabharata
Medieval India
The Classical Age
Gurjara-Pratihara
Pala Empire
Rashtrakuta Empire
ArtPhilosophyLiterature
Islam in India
Delhi SultanateVijayanagara Empire,
MusicGuru Nanak
Mughal India
Architecture,
Maratha Confederacy
Modern India
Company Rule
Zamindari systemWarren Hastings,
Mangal Pandey1857
British Indian Empire
Hindu reformsBengal Renaissance,
Independence struggleMahatma GandhiSubhas Chandra Bose

The history of India begins with evidence of human activity of Homo sapiens, as long as 75,000 years ago, or with earlier hominids including Homo erectus from about 500,000 years ago.[1] TheIndus Valley Civilisation, which spread and flourished in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent from c. 3300 to 1300 BCE in present-day Pakistan and northwest India, was the first major civilisation in South Asia.[2] A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture developed in the Mature Harappan period, from 2600 to 1900 BCE.[3]

This Bronze Age civilisation collapsed before the end of the second millennium BCE and was followed by the Iron Age Vedic Civilisation, which extended over much of the Indo-Gangetic plainand which witnessed the rise of major polities known as the Mahajanapadas. In one of these kingdoms, MagadhaMahavira and Gautama Buddha were born in the 6th or 5th century BCE and propagated their Shramanic philosophies.

Most of the subcontinent was conquered by the Maurya Empire during the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE. Various parts of India ruled by numerous Middle kingdoms for the next 1,500 years, among which the Gupta Empire stands out. Southern India saw the rule of the ChalukyasCholas,Pallavas, and Pandyas. This period, witnessing a Hindu religious and intellectual resurgence, is known as the classical or “Golden Age of India“. During this period, aspects of Indian civilisation, administration, culture, and religion (Hinduism and Buddhism) spread to much of Asia, while kingdoms in southern India had maritime business links with the Roman Empire from around 77 CE.

Muslim rule in the subcontinent began in 8th century CE when the Arab general Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh and Multan in southern Punjab in modern day Pakistan,[4] setting the stage for several successive invasions from Central Asia between the 10th and 15th centuries CE, leading to the formation of Muslim empires in the Indian subcontinent such as the Delhi Sultanateand the Mughal Empire. Mughal rule came from Central Asia to cover most of the northern parts of the subcontinent. Mughal rulers introduced Central Asian art and architecture to India. In addition to the Mughals and various Rajput kingdoms, several independent Hindu states, such as theVijayanagara Empire, the Maratha EmpireEastern Ganga Empire and the Ahom Kingdom, flourished contemporaneously in southern, western, eastern and northeastern India respectively. The Mughal Empire suffered a gradual decline in the early 18th century, which provided opportunities for the AfghansBalochisSikhs, and Marathas to exercise control over large areas in the northwest of the subcontinent until the British East India Company gained ascendancy over South Asia.[5]

Beginning in the mid-18th century and over the next century, large areas of India were annexed by the British East India Company. Dissatisfaction with Company rule led to the Indian Rebellion of 1857, after which the British provinces of India were directly administered by the British Crown and witnessed a period of both rapid development of infrastructure and economic decline. During the first half of the 20th century, a nationwide struggle for independence was launched by the Indian National Congress and later joined by the Muslim League. The subcontinent gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1947, after the British provinces were partitioned into the dominions of India and Pakistan and the princely states all acceded to one of the new states.

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Periodisation[edit]

James Mill (1773-1836), in his The History of British India (1817),[6] distinguished three phases in the history of India, namely Hindu, Muslim and British civilisations.[6][7] This periodisation has been criticised, for the misconceptions it has given rise to.[8] Another periodisation is the division into “ancient, classical, medieaval and modern periods”.[9] Smart[10] and Michaels[11] seem to follow Mill’s periodisation,[note 1], while Flood[12] and Muesse[14][15] follow the “ancient, classical, medieaval and modern periods” periodisation.[16]

Different periods are designated as “classical Hinduism”:

  • Smart calls the period between 1000 BCE and 100 CE “pre-classical”. It’s the formative period for the Upanishads and Brahmanism[note 2], Jainism and Buddhism. For Smart, the “classical period” lasts from 100 to 1000 CE, and coincides with the flowering of “classical Hinduism” and the flowering and deterioration of Mahayana-buddhism in India.[18]
  • For Michaels, the period between 500 BCE and 200 BCE is a time of “Ascetic reformism”[19], whereas the period between 200 BCE and 1100 CE is the time of “classical Hinduism”, since there is “a turning point between the Vedic religion and Hindu religions”.[20]
  • Muesse discerns a longer period of change, namely between 800 BCE and 200 BCE, which he calls the “Classical Period”:
…this was a time when traditional religious practices and beliefs were reassessed. The brahmins and the rituals they performed no longer enjoyed the same prestige they had in the Vedic pariod”.[21]

According to Muesse, some of the fundamental concepts of Hinduism, namely karma, reincarnation and “personal enlightenment and transformation”, which did not exist in the Vedic religion, developed in this time:

Indian philosophers came to regard the human as an immortal soul encased in a perishable body and bound by action, or karma, to a cycle of endless existences.[22]

According to Muesse, reincarnation is “a fundamental principle of virtually all religions formed in Indias”.[23]

The period of the ascetic reforms saw the rise of Buddhism and Jainism, while Sikhism originated during the time of Islamic rule.[24]

Smart[10] Michaels
(overall)
[24]
Michaels
(detailed)
[24]
Muesse[15] Flood[25]
Indus Valley Civilisation andVedic period
(ca. 3000-1000 BCE)
Prevedic religions
(until ca. 1750 BCE)[11]
Prevedic religions
(until ca. 1750 BCE)[11]
Indus Valley Civilization
(3300–1400 BCE)
Indus Valley Civilisation
(ca. 2500 to 1500 BCE)
Vedic religion
(ca. 1750-500 BCE)
Early Vedic Period
(ca. 1750-1200 BCE)
Vedic Period
(1600–800 BCE)
Vedic period
(ca. 1500-500 BCE)
Middle Vedic Period
(from 1200 BCE)
Pre-classical period
(ca. 1000 BCE – 100 CE)
Late Vedic period
(from 850 BCE)
Classical Period
(800–200 BCE)
Ascetic reformism
(ca. 500-200 BCE)
Ascetic reformism
(ca. 500-200 BCE)
Epic and Puranicperiod
(ca. 500 BCE to 500 CE)
Classical Hinduism
(ca. 200 BCE-1100 CE)[20]
Preclassical Hinduism
(ca. 200 BCE-300 CE)[26]
Epic and Puranicperiod
(200 BCE–500 CE)
Classical period
(ca. 100 CE – 1000 CE)
“Golden Age” (Gupta Empire)
(ca. 320-650 CE)[27]
Late-Classical Hinduism
(ca. 650-1100 CE)[28]
Medieval and Late Puranic Period
(500–1500 CE)
Medieval and Late Puranic Period
(500–1500 CE)
Hindu-Islamic civilisation
(ca. 1000-1750 CE)
Islamic rule and “Sects of Hinduism”
(ca. 1100-1850 CE)[29]
Islamic rule and “Sects of Hinduism”
(ca. 1100-1850 CE)[29]
Modern Age
(1500–present)
Modern period
(ca. 1500 CE to present)
Modern period
(ca. 1750 CE – present)
Modern Hinduism
(from ca. 1850)[30]
Modern Hinduism
(from ca. 1850)[30]

Prehistoric era[edit]

Stone Age[edit]

Main article: South Asian Stone Age
Further information: MehrgarhBhimbetka rock shelters, and Edakkal Caves

Bhimbetka rock paintingMadhya Pradesh, India (c. 30,000 years old)

Stone age (5000 BCE) writings ofEdakkal Caves in Kerala, India.

Isolated remains of Homo erectus in Hathnora in the Narmada Valley in central India indicate that India might have been inhabited since at least the Middle Pleistocene era, somewhere between 500,000 and 200,000 years ago.[31][32] Tools crafted by proto-humans that have been dated back two million years have been discovered in the northwestern part of the subcontinent.[33][34] The ancient history of the region includes some of South Asia’s oldest settlements[35] and some of its major civilisations.[36][37] The earliest archaeological site in the subcontinent is the palaeolithic hominid site in the Soan River valley.[38] Soanian sites are found in the Sivalik region across what are now India, Pakistan, and Nepal.[39]

The Mesolithic period in the Indian subcontinent was followed by the Neolithic period, when more extensive settlement of the subcontinent occurred after the end of the last Ice Ageapproximately 12,000 years ago. The first confirmed semipermanent settlements appeared 9,000 years ago in the Bhimbetka rock shelters in modern Madhya Pradesh, India. Early Neolithic culture in South Asia is represented by the Bhirrana findings (7500 BCE)in Haryana, India & Mehrgarh findings (7000 BCE onwards) in Balochistan, Pakistan.[40][41]

Traces of a Neolithic culture have been alleged to be submerged in the Gulf of Khambat in India,radiocarbon dated to 7500 BCE.[42] However, the one dredged piece of wood in question was found in an area of strong ocean currents. Neolithic agriculture cultures sprang up in the Indus Valley region around 5000 BCE, in the lower Gangetic valley around 3000 BCE, and in later South India, spreading southwards and also northwards into Malwa around 1800 BCE. The first urban civilisation of the region began with the Indus Valley Civilisation.[43]

Bronze Age[edit]

“Priest King” ofIndus Valley Civilisation

The Bronze Age in the Indian subcontinent began around 3300 BCE with the early Indus Valley Civilisation. It was centred on the Indus River and its tributaries which extended into the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley,[36] the Ganges-Yamuna Doab,[44] Gujarat,[45] and southeastern Afghanistan.[46]

The civilisation is primarily located in modern-day India (GujaratHaryanaPunjab and Rajasthan provinces) and Pakistan (SindhPunjab, and Balochistan provinces). Historically part of Ancient India, it is one of the world’s earliest urban civilisations, along with Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt.[47] Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley, the Harappans, developed new techniques in metallurgy and handicraft (carneol products, seal carving), and produced copper, bronze, lead, and tin.

The Mature Indus civilisation flourished from about 2600 to 1900 BCE, marking the beginning of urban civilisation on the subcontinent. The civilisation included urban centres such as DholaviraKalibanganRuparRakhigarhi, and Lothal in modern-day India, and HarappaGaneriwala, and Mohenjo-daro in modern-day Pakistan. The civilisation is noted for its cities built of brick, roadside drainage system, and multistoried houses.

Vedic period (1500–500 BCE)[edit]

Main article: Vedic Civilisation
See also: Vedas and Indo-Aryans

A map of North India in the late Vedic period.

The Vedic period is characterised by Indo-Aryan culture associated with the texts of Vedas, sacred to Hindus, which were orally composed in Vedic Sanskrit. The Vedas are some of the oldest extant texts in India[48] and next to some writings in Egypt and Mesopotamia are the oldest in the world. The Vedic period lasted from about 1500 to 500 BCE,[49] laying the foundations of Hinduism and other cultural aspects of early Indian society. In terms of culture, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic to the Iron Age in this period.[50]

Vedic society[edit]

Historians have analysed the Vedas to posit a Vedic culture in thePunjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.[50] Most historians also consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west.[51][52]Vedic people believed in the transmigration of the soul, and the peepultree and cow were sanctified by the time of the Atharva Veda.[53] Many of the concepts of Indian philosophy espoused later like Dharma, Karma etc. trace their root to the Vedas.[54]

The swastika is a major element of Hindu iconography.

Early Vedic society consisted of largely pastoral groups, with late Harappan urbanisation having been abandoned.[55] After the time of the Rigveda, Aryan society became increasingly agricultural and was socially organised around the four varnas, or social classes. In addition to the Vedas, the principal texts of Hinduism, the core themes of the Sanskrit epics Ramayana and Mahabharata are said to have their ultimate origins during this period.[56] The Mahabharata remains, today, the longest single poem in the world.[57] The events described in the Ramayana are from a later period of history than the events of theMahabharata.[58] The early Indo-Aryan presence probably corresponds, in part, to the Ochre Coloured Pottery culture in archaeological contexts.[59]

Sanskritization[edit]

Main article: Sanskritization

Since Vedic times, “people from many strata of society throughout the subcontinent tended to adapt their religious and social life to Brahmanic norms”, a process sometimes called Sanskritization.[60] It is reflected in the tendency to identify local deities with the gods of the Sanskrit texts.[60]

The Kuru kingdom[61] corresponds to the Black and Red Ware and Painted Grey Ware cultures and to the beginning of the Iron Age in northwestern India, around 1000 BCE, as well as with the composition of the Atharvaveda, the first Indian text to mention iron, asśyāma ayas, literally “black metal.” The Painted Grey Ware culture spanned much of northern India from about 1100 to 600 BCE.[59]The Vedic Period also established republics such as Vaishali, which existed as early as the 6th century BCE and persisted in some areas until the 4th century CE. The later part of this period corresponds with an increasing movement away from the previous tribal system towards the establishment of kingdoms, called mahajanapadas.

Formative period (800-200 BCE)[edit]

During the time between 800 and 200 BCE the Shramana-movement developed, from which originated Jainism and Buddhism. In the same period the first Upanishds were written.

Mahajanapadas (600-300 BCE)[edit]

The Mahajanapadas were the sixteen most powerful kingdoms and republics of the era, located mainly across the fertile Indo-Gangetic plains, there were a number of smaller kingdoms stretching the length and breadth of Ancient India.

Main articles: Mahajanapadas and Haryanka dynasty

In the later Vedic Age, a number of small kingdoms or city states had covered the subcontinent, many mentioned in Vedic, early Buddhist and Jaina literature as far back as 1000 BCE. By 500 BCE, sixteen monarchies and “republics” known as the MahajanapadasKashi,KosalaAngaMagadhaVajji (or Vriji), MallaChediVatsa (or Vamsa), KuruPanchalaMatsya (or Machcha), ShurasenaAssaka,AvantiGandhara,and Kamboja—stretched across the Indo-Gangetic Plain from modern-day Afghanistan to Bengal and Maharastra. This period saw the second major rise of urbanism in India after the Indus Valley Civilisation.[62]

Many smaller clans mentioned within early literature seem to have been present across the rest of the subcontinent. Some of these kings were hereditary; other states elected their rulers. The educated speech at that time was Sanskrit, while the languages of the general population of northern India are referred to as Prakrits. Many of the sixteen kingdoms had coalesced to four major ones by 500/400 BCE, by the time of Gautama Buddha. These four were Vatsa, Avanti, Kosala, and Magadha.[62]

Upanishads and Shramana movements[edit]

Nalanda is considered one of the first great universities in recorded history. It was the centre of Buddhist learning and research in the world from 450 to 1193 CE.

See also: Gautama Buddha and Mahavira

The 9th and 8th centuries BCE witnessed the composition of the earliest Upanishads.[63]:183Upanishads form the theoretical basis of classical Hinduism and are known as Vedanta(conclusion of the Vedas).[64] The older Upanishads launched attacks of increasing intensity on the ritual. Anyone who worships a divinity other than the Self is called a domestic animal of the gods in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. The Mundaka launches the most scathing attack on the ritual by comparing those who value sacrifice with an unsafe boat that is endlessly overtaken by old age and death.[65]

Increasing urbanisation of India in 7th and 6th centuries BCE led to the rise of new ascetic or shramana movements which challenged the orthodoxy of rituals.[66] Mahavira (c. 549–477 BCE), proponent of Jainism, and Buddha (c. 563-483), founder of Buddhism were the most prominent icons of this movement. Shramana gave rise to the concept of the cycle of birth and death, the concept of samsara, and the concept of liberation.[67] Buddha found a Middle Way that ameliorated the extreme asceticism found in the Sramana religions.[68]

Around the same time, Mahavira (the 24th Tirthankara in Jainism) propagated a theology that was to later become Jainism.[69] However, Jain orthodoxy believes the teachings of the Tirthankaras predates all known time and scholars believe Parshva, accorded status as the 23rd Tirthankara, was a historical figure. The Vedas are believed to have documented a few Tirthankaras and an ascetic order similar to the shramana movement.[70]

Persian and Greek conquests[edit]

Asia in 323 BCE, the Nanda Empire and Gangaridai Empire in relation to Alexander‘s Empire and neighbors.

In 530 BCE Cyrus the Great, King of the Persian Achaemenid Empirecrossed the Hindu-Kush mountains to seek tribute from the tribes of Kamboja, Gandhara and the trans-India region.[71] By 520 BCE, during the reign of Darius I of Persia, much of the northwestern subcontinent (present-day eastern Afghanistan and Pakistan) came under the rule of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. The area remained under Persian control for two centuries.[72] During this time India supplied mercenaries to the Persian army then fighting in Greece.[71]

Under Persian rule the famous city of Takshashila became a centre where both Vedic and Iranian learning were mingled.[73] The impact of Persian ideas was felt in many areas of Indian life. Persian coinage and rock inscriptions were copied by India. However, Persian ascendency in northern India ended with Alexander the Great‘s conquest of Persia in 327 BCE.[74]

By 326 BCE, Alexander the Great had conquered Asia Minor and the Achaemenid Empire and had reached the northwest frontiers of the Indian subcontinent. There he defeated King Porus in the Battle of the Hydaspes (near modern-day Jhelum, Pakistan) and conquered much of the Punjab.[75] Alexander’s march east put him in confrontation with the Nanda Empire of Magadha and theGangaridai Empire of Bengal. His army, exhausted and frightened by the prospect of facing larger Indian armies at the Ganges River, mutinied at the Hyphasis (modern Beas River) and refused to march further East. Alexander, after the meeting with his officer, Coenus, and learning about the might of Nanda Empire, was convinced that it was better to return.

The Persian and Greek invasions had important repercussions on Indian civilisation. The political systems of the Persians were to influence future forms of governance on the subcontinent, including the administration of the Mauryan dynasty. In addition, the region of Gandhara, or present-day eastern Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan, became a melting pot of Indian, Persian, Central Asian, and Greek cultures and gave rise to a hybrid culture, Greco-Buddhism, which lasted until the 5th century CE and influenced the artistic development of Mahayana Buddhism.

Maurya Empire (322–185 BCE)[edit]

Main article: Maurya Empire
Further information: Chandragupta MauryaBindusara, and Ashoka the Great

Ashokan pillar at Vaishali, 3rd century BCE.

The Maurya Empire (322–185 BCE), ruled by the Mauryan dynasty, was a geographically extensive and powerful political and military empire in ancient India. The empire was established by Chandragupta Maurya in Magadha what is now Bihar.[76] The empire flourished under the reign of Ashoka the Great.[77]

At its greatest extent, it stretched to the north to the natural boundaries of the Himalayas and to the east into what is now Assam. To the west, it reached beyond modern Pakistan, annexingBalochistan and much of what is now Afghanistan, including the modern Herat and Kandahar provinces. The empire was expanded into India’s central and southern regions by the emperors Chandragupta and Bindusara, but it excluded extensive unexplored tribal and forested regions near Kalinga which were subsequently taken by Ashoka.[78]

Ashoka ruled the Maurya Empire for 37 years from 268 BCE until he died in 232 BCE.[78] During that time, Ashoka pursued an active foreign policy aimed at setting up a unified state.[79] However, Ashoka became involved in a war with the state of Kalinga which is located on the western shore of the Bay of Bengal.[80] This war forced Ashoka to abandon his attempt at a foreign policy which would unify the Maurya Empire.[81]

During the Mauryan Empire slavery developed rapidly and significant amount of written records on slavery are found.[82] The Mauryan Empire was based on a modern and efficient economy and society. However, the sale of merchandise was closely regulated by the government.[83] Although there was no banking in the Mauryan society, usury was customary with loans made at the recognized interest rate of 15% per annum.

Ashoka’s reign propagated Buddhism. In this regard Ashoka established many Buddhist monuments. Indeed, Ashoka put a strain on the economy and the government by his strong support of Buddhism. towards the end of his reign he “bled the state coffers white with his generous gifts to promote the promulation of Buddha’s teaching.[84] As might be expected, this policy caused considerable opposition within the government. This opposition rallied around Sampadi, Ashoka’s grandson and heir to the throne.[85] Religious opposition to Ashoka also arose among the orthodox Brahmanists and the adherents of Jainism.[86]

Chandragupta’s minister Chanakya wrote the Arthashastra, one of the greatest treatises on economics, politics, foreign affairs, administration, military arts, war, and religion produced in Asia. Archaeologically, the period of Mauryan rule in South Asia falls into the era of Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW). The Arthashastra and the Edicts of Ashoka are primary written records of the Mauryan times. The Lion Capital of Asoka at Sarnath, is the national emblem of India.

Epic and Early Puranic Period – Early Classical Period & Golden Age (ca. 200 BCE–700 CE)[edit]

The time between 200 BCE and ca. 1100 CE is the “Classical Age” of India. It can be divided in various sub-periods, depending on the chosen periodisation. The Gupta Empire (4th-6th century) is regarded as the “Golden Age” of Hinduism, but a host of kingdoms ruled over India in these centuries.

The Satavahana dynasty, also known as the Andhras, ruled in southern and central India after around 230 BCE. Satakarni, the sixth ruler of the Satvahana dynasty, defeated the Sunga Empire of north India. Afterwards, Kharavela, the warrior king of Kalinga,[87] ruled a vast empire and was responsible for the propagation of Jainism in the Indian subcontinent.[87]

The Kharavelan Jain empire included a maritime empire with trading routes linking it to Sri LankaBurmaThailandVietnamCambodia,BorneoBaliSumatra, and Java. Colonists from Kalinga settled in Sri Lanka, Burma, as well as the Maldives and Maritime Southeast Asia. The Kuninda Kingdom was a small Himalayan state that survived from around the 2nd century BCE to the 3rd century CE.

The Kushanas migrated from Central Asia into northwestern India in the middle of the 1st century CE and founded an empire that stretched from Tajikistan to the middle Ganges. The Western Satraps (35-405 CE) were Saka rulers of the western and central part of India. They were the successors of the Indo-Scythians and contemporaries of the Kushans who ruled the northern part of the Indian subcontinent and the Satavahana (Andhra) who ruled in central and southern India.

Different dynasties such as the PandyansCholasCherasKadambasWestern GangasPallavas, and Chalukyas, dominated the southern part of the Indian peninsula at different periods of time. Several southern kingdoms formed overseas empires that stretched into Southeast Asia. The kingdoms warred with each other and the Deccan states for domination of the south. The Kalabras, a Buddhist dynasty, briefly interrupted the usual domination of the Cholas, Cheras, and Pandyas in the south.

Northwestern hybrid cultures[edit]

The founder of theIndo-Greek Kingdom,Demetrius I “the Invincible” (205–171 BCE).

The northwestern hybrid cultures of the subcontinent included the Indo-Greeks, the Indo-Scythians, the Indo-Parthians, and the Indo-Sassinids. The first of these, the Indo-Greek Kingdom, was founded when the Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius invaded the region in 180 BCE, extending his rule over various parts of present-day Afghanistan and Pakistan. Lasting for almost two centuries, the kingdom was ruled by a succession of more than 30 Greek kings, who were often in conflict with each other.

The Indo-Scythians were a branch of the Indo-European Sakas (Scythians) who migrated from southernSiberia, first into Bactria, subsequently into SogdianaKashmirArachosia, and Gandhara, and finally into India. Their kingdom lasted from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century BCE.

Yet another kingdom, the Indo-Parthians (also known as the Pahlavas), came to control most of present-day Afghanistan and northern Pakistan, after fighting many local rulers such as the Kushan ruler Kujula Kadphises, in the Gandhara region. The Sassanid empire of Persia, who was contemporaneous with the Gupta Empire, expanded into the region of present-day Balochistan in Pakistan, where the mingling of Indian culture and the culture of Iran gave birth to a hybrid culture under the Indo-Sassanids.

Kushan Empire[edit]

Main article: Kushan Empire

The Kushan Empire expanded out of what is now Afghanistan into the northwest of the subcontinent under the leadership of their first emperor, Kujula Kadphises, about the middle of the 1st century CE. By the time of his grandson, Kanishka, (whose era is thought to have begun c. 127 CE), they had conquered most of northern India, at least as far as Saketa and Pataliputra, in the middle Ganges Valley, and probably as far as the Bay of Bengal.[88]

They played an important role in the establishment of Buddhism in India and its spread to Central Asia and China. By the 3rd century, their empire in India was disintegrating; their last known great emperor being Vasudeva I (c. 190-225 CE).

Roman trade with India[edit]

Main article: Roman trade with India

Coin of the Roman emperor Augustusfound at the Pudukottai,South India.

Roman trade with India started around 1 CE, during the reign of Augustus and following his conquest of Egypt, which had been India’s biggest trade partner in the West.

The trade started by Eudoxus of Cyzicus in 130 BCE kept increasing, and according to Strabo (II.5.12.[89]), by the time of Augustus, up to 120 ships set sail every year from Myos Hormos on the Red Sea to India. So much gold was used for this trade, and apparently recycled by the Kushans for their own coinage, that Pliny the Elder (NH VI.101) complained about the drain of specie to India:

“India, China and the Arabian peninsula take one hundred million sesterces from our empire per annum at a conservative estimate: that is what our luxuries and women cost us. For what percentage of these imports is intended for sacrifices to the gods or the spirits of the dead?”
—Pliny, Historia Naturae 12.41.84.[90]

The maritime (but not the overland) trade routes, harbours, and trade items are described in detail in the 1st century CE Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.

Gupta rule – Golden Age[edit]

Main article: Gupta Empire
Further information: KalidasaAryabhataVarahamihiraVishnu Sharma, and Vatsyayana

Queen Kumaradevi and KingChandragupta I, depicted on a coin of their son Samudragupta, 335–380 CE.

The Classical Age refers to the period when much of the Indian subcontinent was reunited under the Gupta Empire (c. 320–550 CE).[91][92] This period has been called the Golden Age of India[93] and was marked by extensive achievements in science, technologyengineering,artdialecticliteraturelogicmathematicsastronomyreligion, and philosophy that crystallized the elements of what is generally known as Hindu culture.[94] The decimal numeral system, including the concept of zero, was invented in India during this period.[95]The peace and prosperity created under leadership of Guptas enabled the pursuit of scientific and artistic endeavors in India.[96]

The high points of this cultural creativity are magnificent architecture, sculpture, and painting.[97] The Gupta period produced scholars such as KalidasaAryabhataVarahamihira,Vishnu Sharma, and Vatsyayana who made great advancements in many academic fields.[98]Science and political administration reached new heights during the Gupta era. Strong trade ties also made the region an important cultural centre and established it as a base that would influence nearby kingdoms and regions in BurmaSri LankaMaritime Southeast Asia, andIndochina.

The Gupta period marked a watershed of Indian culture: the Guptas performed Vedic sacrifices to legitimize their rule, but they also patronized Buddhism, which continued to provide an alternative to Brahmanical orthodoxy. The military exploits of the first three rulers—Chandragupta I (c. 319–335), Samudragupta (c. 335–376), and Chandragupta II(c. 376–415) —brought much of India under their leadership.[99] They successfully resisted the northwestern kingdoms until the arrival of the Hunas, who established themselves in Afghanistan by the first half of the 5th century, with their capital at Bamiyan.[100] However, much of the Deccan and southern India were largely unaffected by these events in the north.[101][102]

Medieval and Late Puranic Period – Late-Classical Age (500–1500 CE)[edit]

Pala Empire under Devapala

Chola Empire under Rajendra Chola c. 1030 C.E.

The Kanauj Triangle was the focal point of empires – the Rashtrakutas ofDeccan, the Gurjara Pratiharas ofMalwa, and the Palas of Bengal.

The “Late-Classical Age”[28] in India began after the end of the Gupta Empire[28] and the collapse Harsha Empire in the 7th century CE[28], and ended with the fall of theVijayanagara Empire in the south in the 13th century, due to pressure from Islamic invaders[29] to the north.

This period produced some of India’s finest art, considered the epitome of classical development, and the development of the main spiritual and philosophical systems which continued to be in Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. King Harsha of Kannauj succeeded in reuniting northern India during his reign in the 7th century, after the collapse of the Gupta dynasty. His kingdom collapsed after his death.

Central Asian and North Western Indian Buddhism weakened in the 6th century after the White Hun invasion, who followed their own religions such as Tengri, andManichaeismMuhammad bin Qasim‘s invasion of Sindh in 711 CE witnessed further decline of Buddhism. The Chach Nama records many instances of conversion of stupas to mosques such as at Nerun[103]

In 7th century CE, Kumārila Bhaṭṭa formulated his school of Mimamsa philosophy and defended the position on Vedic rituals against Buddhist attacks. Scholars note Bhaṭṭa’s contribution to the decline of Buddhism.[104] His dialectical success against the Buddhists is confirmed by Buddhist historian Tathagata, who reports that Kumārila defeated disciples of Buddhapalkita, Bhavya, Dharmadasa, Dignaga and others.[105]

Ronald Inden writes that by 8th century BCE symbols of Hindu gods “replaced the Buddha at the imperial centre and pinnacle of the cosmo-political system, the image or symbol of the Hindu god comes to be housed in a monumental temple and given increasingly elaborate imperial-style puja worship”.[106] Although Buddhism did not disappear from India for several centuries after the eighth, royal proclivities for the cults of Vishnu and Shiva weakened Buddhism’s position within the sociopolitical context and helped make possible its decline.[107]

Northern India[edit]

From the 7th to the 9th century, three dynasties contested for control of northern India: theGurjara Pratiharas of Malwa,the Eastern Ganga dynasty of Odisha, the Palas of Bengal, and theRashtrakutas of the Deccan. The Sena dynasty would later assume control of the Pala Empire, and the Gurjara Pratiharas fragmented into various states. These were the first of the Rajputstates, a series of kingdoms which managed to survive in some form for almost a millennium, until Indian independence from the British. The first recorded Rajput kingdoms emerged inRajasthan in the 6th century, and small Rajput dynasties later ruled much of northern India. OneGurjar[108][109] Rajput of the Chauhan clan, Prithvi Raj Chauhan, was known for bloody conflicts against the advancing Islamic sultanates. The Shahi dynasty ruled portions of eastern Afghanistan, northern Pakistan, and Kashmir from the mid-7th century to the early 11th century.

The Chalukya dynasty ruled parts of southern and central India from Badami in Karnatakabetween 550 and 750, and then again from Kalyani between 970 and 1190. The Pallavas ofKanchipuram were their contemporaries further to the south. With the decline of the Chalukya empire, their feudatories, the Hoysalas ofHalebiduKakatiyas of WarangalSeuna Yadavas of Devagiri, and a southern branch of the Kalachuri, divided the vast Chalukya empire amongst themselves around the middle of 12th century.

The Chola Empire at its peak covered much of the Indian subcontinent and Southeast AsiaRajaraja Chola I conquered all of peninsular south India and parts of Sri LankaRajendra Chola I‘s navies went even further, occupying coasts from Burma to Vietnam,[110] theAndaman and Nicobar Islands, the Lakshadweep (Laccadive) islands, Sumatra, and the Malay Peninsula in Southeast Asia and the Pegu islands. Later during the middle period, the Pandyan Empire emerged in Tamil Nadu, as well as the Chera Kingdom in parts ofKerala and Tamil Nadu. By 1343, last of these dynasties had ceased to exist, giving rise to the Vijayanagar empire.

The ports of south India were engaged in the Indian Ocean trade, chiefly involving spices, with the Roman Empire to the west and Southeast Asia to the east.[111][112] Literature in local vernaculars and spectacular architecture flourished until about the beginning of the 14th century, when southern expeditions of the sultan of Delhi took their toll on these kingdoms. The Hindu Vijayanagar Empirecame into conflict with the Islamic Bahmani Sultanate, and the clashing of the two systems caused a mingling of the indigenous and foreign cultures that left lasting cultural influences on each other.

The Islamic Sultanates[edit]

Gol Gumbaz at Bijapur, has the second largest pre-modern dome in the world after the Byzantine Hagia Sophia.

After conquering Persia, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate incorporated parts of what is now Pakistan around 720. The Muslim rulers were keen to invade India,[113] a rich region with a flourishing international trade and the only known diamond mines in the world.[114] In 712, Arab Muslim general Muhammad bin Qasim conquered most of the Indus region in modern day Pakistan for the Umayyad empire, incorporating it as the “As-Sindh” province with its capital at Al-Mansurah, 72 km (45 mi) north of modern Hyderabad in Sindh, Pakistan. After several wars, the Hindu Rajput clans defeated the Arabs at the Battle of Rajasthan, halting their expansion and containing them at Sindh in Pakistan.[115] Many short-lived Islamic kingdoms (sultanates) under foreign rulers were established across the north western subcontinent over a period of a few centuries. Additionally, Muslim trading communities flourished throughout coastal south India, particularly on the western coast where Muslim traders arrived in small numbers, mainly from the Arabian peninsula. This marked the introduction of a third Abrahamic Middle Eastern religion, following Judaism and Christianity, often in puritanical form. Later, the Bahmani Sultanate and Deccan sultanates, founded by Turkic rulers, flourished in the south.

The Vijayanagara Empire rose to prominence by the end of the 13th century as a culmination of attempts by the southern powers to ward off Islamic invasions. The empire dominated all of Southern India and fought off invasions from the five established Deccan Sultanates.[116] The empire reached its peak during the rule of Krishnadevaraya when Vijayanagara armies were consistently victorious.[117] The empire annexed areas formerly under the Sultanates in the northern Deccan and the territories in the eastern Deccan, including Kalinga, while simultaneously maintaining control over all its subordinates in the south.[118] It lasted until 1646, though its power declined after a major military defeat in 1565 by the Deccan sultanates. As a result, much of the territory of the formerVijaynagar Empire were captured by Deccan Sultanates, and the remainder was divided into many states ruled by Hindu rulers.

Delhi Sultanate[edit]

Qutub Minar is the world’s tallest brick minaret, commenced by Qutb-ud-din Aybak of the Slave dynasty.

Main article: Delhi Sultanate

In the 12th and 13th centuries, Turks and Afghans invaded parts of northern India and established the Delhi Sultanate in the former Rajput holdings.[119] The subsequent Slave dynasty of Delhi managed to conquer large areas of northern India, approximately equal in extent to the ancient Gupta Empire, while the Khilji dynasty conquered most of central India but were ultimately unsuccessful in conquering and uniting the subcontinent. The Sultanate ushered in a period of Indian cultural renaissance. The resulting “Indo-Muslim” fusion of cultures left lasting syncretic monuments in architecture, music, literature, religion, and clothing. It is surmised that the language of Urdu (literally meaning “horde” or “camp” in various Turkic dialects) was born during the Delhi Sultanate period as a result of the intermingling of the local speakers of Sanskritic Prakrits with immigrants speaking PersianTurkic, and Arabic under the Muslim rulers. The Delhi Sultanate is the only Indo-Islamic empire to enthrone one of the few female rulers in India, Razia Sultana (1236–1240).

Turco-Mongol conqueror in Central Asia, Timur (Tamerlane), attacked the reigning Sultan Nasir-u Din Mehmud of the Tughlaq Dynasty in the north Indian city of Delhi.[120] The Sultan’s army was defeated on 17 December 1398. Timur entered Delhi and the city was sacked, destroyed, and left in ruins, after Timur’s army had killed and plundered for three days and nights. He ordered the whole city to be sacked except for the sayyids, scholars, and the other Muslims; 100,000 war prisoners were put to death in one day.[121]

Early modern period (1500-1850)[edit]

Extent of the Mughal Empire in 1700.

Taj Mahal, built by the Mughals

Mughal Empire[edit]

Main article: Mughal Empire

In 1526, Babur, a Timurid descendant of Timurand Genghis Khan from Fergana Valley (modern day Uzbekistan), swept across the Khyber Passand established the Mughal Empire, covering modern day Afghanistan, Pakistan, India andBangladesh.[122] However, his son Humayun was defeated by the Afghan warrior Sher Shah Suri in the year 1540, and Humayun was forced to retreat to Kabul. After Sher Shah’s death, his sonIslam Shah Suri and the Hindu king Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, who had won 22 battles against Afghan rebels and forces of Akbar, from Punjab to Bengal and had established a secular Hindu rule in North India from Delhi till 1556. Akbar‘s forces defeated and killed Hemu in the Second Battle of Panipat on 6 November 1556.

The Mughal dynasty ruled most of the Indian subcontinent by 1600; it went into a slow decline after 1707. The Mughals suffered sever blow due to invasions from Marathas andAfghans due to which the Mughal dynasty were reduced to puppet rulers by 1757. The remnants of the Mughal dynasty were finally defeated during the Indian Rebellion of 1857, also called the 1857 War of Independence. This period marked vast social change in the subcontinent as the Hindu majority were ruled over by the Mughal emperors, most of whom showed religious tolerance, liberally patronising Hindu culture. The famous emperor Akbar, who was the grandson of Babar, tried to establish a good relationship with the Hindus. However, later emperors such as Aurangazeb tried to establish complete Muslim dominance, and as a result several historical temples were destroyed during this period and taxes imposed on non-Muslims. During the decline of the Mughal Empire, several smaller states rose to fill the power vacuum and themselves were contributing factors to the decline. In 1739, Nader Shah, emperor of Iran, defeated the Mughal army at the huge Battle of Karnal. After this victory, Nader captured and sacked Delhi, carrying away many treasures, including the Peacock Throne.[123]

The Mughals were perhaps the richest single dynasty to have ever existed. During the Mughal era, the dominant political forces consisted of the Mughal Empire and its tributaries and, later on, the rising successor states – including the Maratha Empire – which fought an increasingly weak Mughal dynasty. The Mughals, while often employing brutal tactics to subjugate their empire, had a policy of integration with Indian culture, which is what made them successful where the short-lived Sultanates of Delhi had failed. Akbar the Great was particularly famed for this. Akbar declared “Amari” or non-killing of animals in the holy days of Jainism. He rolled back thejizya tax for non-Muslims. The Mughal emperors married local royalty, allied themselves with local maharajas, and attempted to fuse their Turko-Persian culture with ancient Indian styles, creating a unique Indo-Saracenic architecture. It was the erosion of this tradition coupled with increased brutality and centralization that played a large part in the dynasty’s downfall after Aurangzeb, who unlike previous emperors, imposed relatively non-pluralistic policies on the general population, which often inflamed the majority Hindu population.

Post-Mughal period[edit]

Political map of Indian subcontinent in 1758. The Maratha Empire (orange)was the last Hindu empire of India.

Maratha Empire[edit]

Main article: Maratha Empire

The post-Mughal era was dominated by the rise of the Maratha suzerainty as other small regional states (mostly late Mughal tributary states) emerged, and also by the increasing activities of European powers (see colonial era below). There is no doubt that the single most important power to emerge in the long twilight of the Mughal dynasty was the Maratha Empire.[124] The Maratha kingdom was founded and consolidated by Shivaji, a Marathaaristocrat of the Bhonsle clan who was determined to establish Hindavi Swarajya (self-rule ofHindu people). By the 18th century, it had transformed itself into the Maratha Empire under the rule of the Peshwas (prime ministers). Gordon explains how the Maratha systematically took control over the Malwa plateau in 1720-1760. They started with annual raids, collecting ransom from villages and towns while the declining Mughal Empire retained nominal control. However in 1737, the Marathas defeated a Mughal army in their capital, Delhi inteslf, and as a result, the Mughal emperor ceded Malwa to them. The Marathas continued their military campaignsagainst MughalsNizamNawab of Bengal and Durrani Empire to further extend their boundaries. They built an efficient system of public administration known for its attention to detail. It succeeded in raising revenue in districts that recovered from years of raids, up to levels previously enjoyed by the Mughals. The cornerstone of the Maratha rule in Malwa rested on the 60 or so local tax collectors (kamavisdars) who advanced the Maratha ruler ‘(Peshwa)’ a portion of their district revenues at interest.[125] By 1760, the domain of the Marathas stretched across practically the entire subcontinent.[126] The defeat of Marathas by British in three Anglo-Maratha Wars brought end to the empire by 1820. The lastpeshwaBaji Rao II, was defeated by the British in the Third Anglo-Maratha War.

Sikh Empire (North-west)[edit]

Harmandir Sahib or The Golden Temple is culturally the most significant place of worship for the Sikhs.

Main article: Sikh Empire

The Punjabi kingdom, ruled by members of the Sikh religion, was a political entity that governed the region of modern-day Punjab. The empire, based around the Punjab region, existed from 1799 to 1849. It was forged, on the foundations of the Khalsa, under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780–1839) from an array of autonomous Punjabi Misls. He consolidated many parts of northern India into a kingdom. He primarily used his highly disciplined Sikh army that he trained and equipped to be the equal of a European force. Ranjit Singh proved himself to be a master strategist and selected well qualified generals for his army. In stages, he added the central Punjab, the provinces of Multan and Kashmir, the Peshawar Valley, and the Derajat to his kingdom. His came in the face of the powerful British East India Company.[127][128] At its peak, in the 19th century, the empire extended from the Khyber Pass in the west, to Kashmir in the north, to Sindh in the south, and Himachal in the east. This was among the last areas of the subcontinent to be conquered by the British. The first and second Anglo-Sikh war marked the downfall of the Sikh Empire.

Other kingdoms[edit]

There were several other kingdoms which ruled over parts of India in the later mediaeval period prior to the British occupation. However, most of them were bound to pay regular tribute to the Marathas.[126] The rule of Wodeyar dynasty which established the Kingdom of Mysore in southern India in around 1400 CE by was interrupted by Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan in the later half of 18th century. Under their rule, Mysore fought a series of wars sometimes against the combined forces of the British and Marathas, but mostly against the British, with Mysore receiving some aid or promise of aid from the French.

The Nawabs of Bengal had become the de facto rulers of Bengal following the decline of Mughal Empire. However, their rule was interrupted by Marathas who carried six expeditions in Bengal from 1741 to 1748 as a result of which Bengal became a vassal state ofMarathas.

Hyderabad was founded by the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golconda in 1591. Following a brief Mughal rule, Asif Jah, a Mughal official, seized control of Hyderabad and declared himself Nizam-al-Mulk of Hyderabad in 1724. It was ruled by a hereditary Nizam from 1724 until 1948. Both Mysore and Hyderabad became princely states in British India.

Around the 18th century, the modern state of Nepal was formed by Gurkha rulers.

Colonial era (1500-1947)[edit]

Main article: Colonial India

In 1498, Vasco da Gama successfully discovered a new sea route from Europe to India, which paved the way for direct Indo-European commerce.[129] The Portuguese soon set up trading posts in GoaDamanDiu and Bombay. The next to arrive were the Dutch, theBritish—who set up a trading post in the west coast port of Surat[130] in 1619—and the French. The internal conflicts among Indian kingdoms gave opportunities to the European traders to gradually establish political influence and appropriate lands. Although these continental European powers controlled various coastal regions of southern and eastern India during the ensuing century, they eventually lost all their territories in India to the British islanders, with the exception of the French outposts of Pondichéry andChandernagore, the Dutch port of Travancore, and the Portuguese colonies of GoaDaman and Diu.

Company rule in India[edit]

Map of India in 1857 at the end of Company rule.

In 1617 the British East India Company was given permission by Mughal Emperor Jahangir to trade in India.[131] Gradually their increasing influence led the de jure Mughal emperorFarrukh Siyar to grant them dastaks or permits for duty free trade in Bengal in 1717.[132] TheNawab of Bengal Siraj Ud Daulah, the de facto ruler of the Bengal province, opposed British attempts to use these permits.

The First Carnatic War extended from 1746 until 1748 and was the result of colonial competition between France and Britain, two of the countries involved in the War of Austrian Succession. Following the capture of a few French ships by the British fleet in India, French troops attacked and captured the British city of Madras located on the east coast of India on 21 September 1746. Among the prisoners captured at Madras was Robert Clive himself. The war was eventually ended by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle which ended the War of Austrian Succession in 1748.

In 1749, the Second Carnatic War broke out as the result of a war between a son, Nasir Jung, and a grandson, Muzaffer Jung, of the deceased Nizam-ul-Mulk of Hyderabad to take over Nizam’s throne in Hyderabad. The French supported Muzaffer Jung in this civil war. Consequently, the British supported Nasir Jung in this conflict.

Meanwhile, however, the conflict in Hyderabad provided Chanda Sahib with an opportunity to take power as the new Nawab of the territory of Arcot. In this conflict, the French supported Chandra Sahib in his attempt to become the new Nawab of Arcot. The British supported the son of the deposed incumbent Nawab, Anwaruddin Muhammad Khan, against Chanda Sahib. In 1751, Robert Clive led a British armed force and captured Arcot to reinstate the incumbent Nawab. The Second Carnatic War finally came to an end in 1754 with the Treaty of Pondicherry.

In 1756, the Seven Years War broke out between the great powers of Europe, and India became a theatre of action, where it was called the Third Carnatic War. Early in this war, armed forces under the French East India Company captured the British base of Calcutta in north-eastern India. However, armed forces under Robert Clive later recaptured Calcutta and then pressed on to capture the French settlement of Chandannagar in 1757. This led to the Battle of Plassey on 23 June 1757, in which the Bengal Army of the East India Company, led by Robert Clive, defeated the French-supported Nawab’s forces. This was the first real political foothold with territorial implications that the British acquired in India. Clive was appointed by the company as its first ‘Governor of Bengal’ in 1757.[133] This was combined with British victories over the French at MadrasWandiwash and Pondichéry that, along with wider British successes during the Seven Years War, reduced French influence in India. Thus as a result of the three Carnatic Wars, the British East India Company gained exclusive control over the entire Carnatic region of India.[134] The British East India Company extended its control over the whole of Bengal. After the Battle of Buxar in 1764, the company acquired the rights of administration in Bengal from Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II; this marked the beginning of its formal rule, which within the next century engulfed most of India and extinguished the Moghul rule and dynasty.[135] The East India Company monopolized the trade of Bengal. They introduced a land taxation system called thePermanent Settlement which introduced a feudal-like structure in Bengal, often with zamindars set in place. By the 1850s, the East India Company controlled most of the Indian sub-continent, which included present-day Pakistan and Bangladesh. Their policy was sometimes summed up as Divide and Rule, taking advantage of the enmity festering between various princely states and social and religious groups.[136]

The Hindu Ahom Kingdom of North-east India first fell to Burmese invasion and then to British after Treaty of Yandabo in 1826.

The rebellion of 1857 and its consequences[edit]

The Indian rebellion of 1857 was a large-scale rebellion by soldiers employed by the British East India in northern and central India against the Company’s rule. The rebels were disorganized, had differing goals, and were poorly equipped, led, and trained, and had no outside support or funding. They were brutally suppressed and the British government took control of the Company and eliminated many of the grievances that caused it. The government also was determined to keep full control so that no rebellion of such size would ever happen again. It favoured the princely states (that helped suppress the rebellion), and tended to favour Muslims (who were less rebellious) against the Hindus who dominated the rebellion.[137]

In the aftermath, all power was transferred from the East India Company to the British Crown, which began to administer most of India as a number of provinces; the John Company’s lands were controlled directly, while it had considerable indirect influence over the rest of India, which consisted of the Princely states ruled by local royal families. There were officially 565 princely states in 1947, but only 21 had actual state governments, and only three were large (Mysore, Hyderabad and Kashmir). They were absorbed into the independent nation in 1947-48.[138]

British Raj (1858-1947)[edit]

Main article: British Raj

The British Indian Empire at its greatest extent (in a map of 1909). The princely states under British suzerainty are in yellow.

Reforms[edit]

When the Lord Curzon (Viceroy 1899-1905) took control of higher education and then split the large province of Bengal into a largely Hindu western half and “Eastern Bengal and Assam,” a largely Muslim eastern half. The British goal was efficient administration but Hindus were outraged at the apparent “divide and rule” strategy.” When the Liberal party in Britain came to power in 1906 he was removed. The new Viceroy Gilbert Minto and the new Secretary of State for India John Morley consulted with Congress leader Gopal Krishna Gokhale. The Morley-Minto reforms of 1909 provided for Indian membership of the provincial executive councils as well as the Viceroy’s executive council. The Imperial Legislative Council was enlarged from 25 to 60 members and separate communal representation for Muslims was established in a dramatic step towards representative and responsible government. Bengal was reunified in 1911.[139] Meanwhile the Muslims for the first time began to organise, setting up the All India Muslim League in 1906. It was not a mass party but was designed to protect the interests of the aristocratic Muslims, especially in the north west. It was internally divided by conflicting loyalties to Islam, the British, and India, and by distrust of Hindus.[140]

Famines[edit]

During the British Raj, famines in India, often attributed to failed government policies, were some of the worst ever recorded, including the Great Famine of 1876–78 in which 6.1 million to 10.3 million people died[141] and the Indian famine of 1899–1900 in which 1.25 to 10 million people died.[141] The Third Plague Pandemic started in China in the middle of the 19th century, spreading plague to all inhabited continents and killing 10 million people in India alone.[142] Despite persistent diseases and famines, the population of the Indian subcontinent, which stood at about 125 million in 1750, had reached 389 million by 1941.[143]

The Indian independence movement[edit]

The numbers of British in India were small, yet they were able to rule two-thirds of the subcontinent directly and exercise considerable leverage over the princely states that accounted for the remaining one-third of the area. There were 674 of the these states in 1900, with a population of 73 million, or one person in five. In general, the princely states were strong supporters of the British regime, and the Raj left them alone. They were finally closed down in 1947-48.[144]

The first step toward Indian self-rule was the appointment of councillors to advise the Britishviceroy, in 1861; the first Indian was appointed in 1909. Provincial Councils with Indian members were also set up. The councillors’ participation was subsequently widened into legislative councils. The British built a large British Indian Army, with the senior officers all British, and many of the troops from small minority groups such as Gurkhas from Nepal andSikhs. The civil service was increasingly filled with natives at the lower levels, with the British holding the more senior positions.[145]

From 1920 leaders such as Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi began highly popular mass movements to campaign against the British Raj using largely peaceful methods. Some others adopted a militant approach that sought to overthrow British rule by armed struggle;revolutionary activities against the British rule took place throughout the Indian sub-continent. The Gandhi-led independence movement opposed the British rule using non-violent methods like non-cooperationcivil disobedience and economic resistance. These movements succeeded in bringing independence to the new dominions of India and Pakistan in 1947.

Independence and partition (1947-present)[edit]

Along with the desire for independence, tensions between Hindus and Muslims had also been developing over the years. The Muslims had always been a minority within the subcontinent, and the prospect of an exclusively Hindu government made them wary of independence; they were as inclined to mistrust Hindu rule as they were to resist the foreign Raj, although Gandhi called for unity between the two groups in an astonishing display of leadership. The British, extremely weakened by the Second World War, promised that they would leave and participated in the formation of an interim government. The British Indian territories gained independence in 1947, after being partitioned into the Union of India and Dominion of Pakistan. Following the controversial division of pre-partition Punjaband Bengal, rioting broke out between Sikhs, Hindus and Muslims in these provinces and spread to several other parts of India, leaving some 500,000 dead.[146] Also, this period saw one of the largest mass migrations ever recorded in modern history, with a total of 12 million Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims moving between the newly created nations of India and Pakistan (which gained independence on 15 and 14 August 1947 respectively).[146] In 1971, Bangladesh, formerly East Pakistan and East Bengal, seceded from Pakistan.

Historiography[edit]

In recent decades there have been four main schools of historiography regarding India: Cambridge, Nationalist, Marxist, and subaltern. The once common “Orientalist” approach, with its the image of a sensuous, inscrutable, and wholly spiritual India, has died out in serious scholarship.[147]

The “Cambridge School,” led by Anil Seal,[148] Gordon Johnson,[149] Richard Gordon, and David A. Washbrook,[150] downplays ideology.[151]

The Nationalist school has focused on Congress, Gandhi, Nehru and high level politics. It highlighted the Mutiny of 1857 as a war of liberation, and Gandhi’s ‘Quit India’ begun in 1942, as defining historical events. More recently, Hindu nationalists have created a version of history for the schools to support their demands for “Hindutva” (“Hinduness”) in Indian society.[152]

The Marxists have focused on studies of economic development, landownership, and class conflict in precolonial India and of deindustrialization during the colonial period. The Marxists portrayed Gandhi’s movement as a device for the bourgeois elite to harness popular, potentially revolutionary forces for its own ends.[153]

The “subaltern school,” was begun in the 1980s by Ranajit Guha and Gyan Prakash.[154] It focuses attention away from the elites and politicians to “history from below,” looking at the peasants using folklore, poetry, riddles, proverbs, songs, oral history and methods inspired by anthropology. It focuses on the colonial era before 1947 and typically emphasizes caste and downplays class, to the annoyance of the Marxist school.[155]

See also[edit]

Gallery[edit]

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Pakistan Army

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Founded 14 August 1947
Country Pakistan
Type Army
Size 550,000 active troops
500,000 reserves
Headquarters RawalpindiGHQ
Motto Arabic:Iman, Taqwa, Jihad fi Sabilillah
A follower of none but Allah, The fear of Allah, Jihad for Allah.[1]
Colors Green and White
Anniversaries Defence Day: September 6
Engagements 1947 Indo-Pakistan War
1965 Indo-Pakistan War
1971 Indo-Pakistan War
Grand Mosque Seizure
Soviet-Afghan War
Siachen conflict
Kargil War
Global War on Terror
Siege of Lal Masjid
War in North-West Pakistan
Commanders
Chief of Army Staff General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani
Notable
commanders
Field Marshal Ayub Khan
General Yahya Khan
General Zia-ul-haq
General Pervez Musharraf
Aircraft flown
Attack Bell AH-1 Cobra
Helicopter Bell 412Bell 407Bell 206Bell UH-1 Huey
Transport Mil Mi-8/17Aérospatiale Alouette III,Bell 412

The Pakistan Army (Urduپاک فوج Pak Fauj (IPA: Pɑkʰ fɒ~ɔd͡ʒ); reporting name: PA) is the land-based uniform service branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces. The Pakistan Army came into existence after the independence of Pakistan in 1947. The Pakistan Army is a volunteer professional fighting force.[2] According to the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) it has an active force of 725,000 personnel in April 2013.[3] The Constitution of Pakistan contains a provision for conscription, but it has never been imposed.

The primary mandate and mission of the army is to “dedicated to the service of the nation.”[4] Since establishment in 1947, the army (along with its inter–services: NavyMarines and PAF) has been involved in four wars with neighboring India and several border skirmishes with Afghanistan.[5] Since 1947, it has maintain strong presence, along with its inter-services, in the influential the Arab states during the past Arab-Israeli Wars, and aided thecoalition in the first Gulf War. Recently, major joint-operations undertaken by the army include Operation Black Thunderstorm and Operation Rah-e-Nijat. Apart from conflicts, the army has been an active participant in UN missions and played a major role in rescuing trapped American soldiers from Mogadishuof Somalia in 1993 in Operation Gothic Serpent.

Under the Article 243, the Constitution of Pakistan appoints the President of Pakistan as the civilian Commander-in-Chief. The Chief of Army Staff (COAS), by statute a four-star general, is appointed by the President with the consultation and confirmation needed from the Prime Minister of Pakistan.[6]The Chief of Army Staff (In article 6 of Warrant of Precedence of Pakistan) is subordinate to the civilian Defence Minister (In article 5 of Warrant of Precedence for Pakistan) and senior to Secretary of Defence (In article 16 of Warrant of Precedence for Pakistan, the Secretary of Defence is even junior to a Lieutenant General who is placed in article 15 of Warrant of Precedence of Pakistan) commands the army. Although it is currently commanded by General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani, the highest ranking army officer in the army is the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee General Khalid Shameem Wynne.[7][8]

Contents

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Mission[edit]

Pakistan Army serves as the land-based branch of the Pakistan Military. Chapter 2 of PART XII of Pakistani Constitution defines the purpose of the Army as:[9]

The Armed Forces shall, under the directions of the Federal Government, defend Pakistan against external aggression or threat of war, and, subject to law, act in aid of civil power when called upon to do so.[10]

History[edit]

1947–1958[edit]

General Ayub Khan arriving to take command of the Pakistan Army in 1951

The Pakistan Army was created on 30 June 1947 with the division of the British Indian Army. The soon to be created Dominion of Pakistan received six armoured, eight artillery and eightinfantry regiments compared to the 12 armoured, forty artillery and twenty one infantry regiments that went to India. Fearing that India would take over the state of Kashmir, irregulars, scouts and tribal groups entered the Muslim majority state of Kashmir to oppose the Maharaja of Kashmir and Kashmiri Hindus and Sikhs in 1947, even though the Maharaja chose to join the Union of India. This led to the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947. Regular army units joined the invasion later on but were stopped after the refusal of the army chief of staff, British officer General Sir Frank Messervy, to obey Pakistani leader Jinnah’s orders to move the army into Kashmir. A ceasefire followed on UN intervention with Pakistan occupying the northwestern part of Kashmir and India occupying the rest. Later, during the 1950s, the Pakistan Army received large amounts of economic and military aid from the United States and Great Britain after signing two mutual defence treaties, the Baghdad Pact, which led to the formation of the Central Treaty Organization, and the South East Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO) in 1954. This aid greatly expanded the Army from its modest beginnings.

The sole division headquarters that went to Pakistan was the 7th. 8th and 9th Divisions were raised in 1947; 10, 12th and 14 Divisions were raised in 1948. 15 Div was raised in 1950. At some point before 1954, 6 Division was raised and 9 Division disbanded. 6 Division was disbanded at some point after 1954 as US assistance was available only for one armoured and six infantry divisions.

1958–1969[edit]

Pakistan Army took over from politicians for the first time when General Ayub Khan came to power through a bloodless coup in 1958. He formed Convention Muslim League which includes Pakistan’s first elected Prime Minister Z.A. Bhutto. Tensions with India continued in the 1960s and a brief border skirmish was fought near the Rann of Kutch area during April 1965. On the night of 6 September 1965 Indian Army attacked the Punjab Province of Pakistan, without an announcement, Pakistan hold them off, eventually capturing about 1200 km area inside India but a treaty was reached and the area was given back. The war ended with UN backed ceasefire and followed by Tashkent Declaration. According to the Library of Congress Country Studies conducted by the Federal Research Division of the United States, the war was inconclusive militarily.[11] The war was militarily inconclusive; each side held prisoners and some territory belonging to the other.

The Pakistan Army considers itself to have achieved a victory because it simply insists and ignores the treaty of Tashkent by saying it was arranged by USSR, who managed to hold off significantly larger force attacking Pakistani territory at different points, which the PA did not expect and was not prepared or equipped for. Indian sources as well as neutral sources disagree and call the end result an Indian victory. All though Pakistan failed in Kashmir. Highly effective support from the Pakistan Air Force, which was unexpected, is often considered to have neutralized India’s advantage in quantity of forces. The accurate artillery fire provided by the PA artillery units is also stated to have played a significant role.

An uprising against General Ayub Khan during 1968 and 1969 resulted in Ayub Khan relinquishing his office as President and Chief of Army Staff in favor of General Yahya Khan, who assumed power in 1969. 16 Division, 18 Division and 23 Division were raised at some point between 1966 and 1969 and 9 Division was re-raised during this period.

1969–1971[edit]

During the rule of Yahya Khan, the people of East Pakistan protested against various political and economic disparities that had been imposed on them by West Pakistan and massive civil unrest broke out in East Pakistan. During operations against these rebels, calledOperation Searchlight, a faction of the Pakistan Army under General Yahya Khan was responsible for the 1971 Bangladesh atrocities.[12] Beginning with the start of Operation Searchlight on 25 March 1971 and due to the Bangladesh Liberation War, there were numerous human rights abuses in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) perpetrated by the Pakistan Army, with support from local political and religious militias, especially against Hindus.[13][14] Time reported a high ranking U.S. official as saying “It is the most incredible, calculated thing since the days of the Nazis in Poland.”[15]

The original plan envisioned taking control of the major cities on 26 March 1971, and then eliminating all opposition, political or military,[16] within one month. The prolonged Bengali resistance was not anticipated by Pakistani planners.[17] The main phase of Operation Searchlight ended with the fall of the last major town in Bengali hands in the mid of May.

Soon heavy fighting broke out between Pakistani army and India-backed Bengali freedom fighters,in this period Pak army killed estimated 3 Million Bengali people.In December 1971,Pakistan attacked India’s western air based that started war of 1971.In eastern theater Pak army was decimated by Indian Army and Bengali freedom fighters,while in west front,Pak army was defeated in battles of Basanter and Longewalla.

On 16 December 1971, Lt. Gen A. A. K. Niazi, CO of Pakistan Army forces located in East Pakistan signed the Instrument of Surrender.Over 93,000 Pakistani troops surrendered to the Indian forces, making it the largest surrender since World War II.

In 1997 R. J. Rummel published a book, available on the web, called “Statistics of Democide: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900”, In Chapter 8 called “Statistics Of Pakistan’s Democide Estimates, Calculations, And Sources” he looks at the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War. Rummel wrote:

In East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) [the President of Pakistan, General Agha Mohammed Yahya Khan, and his top generals] also planned to murder its Bengali intellectual, cultural, and political elite. They also planned to indiscriminately murder hundreds of thousands of its Hindus and drive the rest into India. And they planned to destroy its economic base to insure that it would be subordinate to West Pakistan for at least a generation to come. This plan may be perceived as genocide.[18]

According to Maj. (Retd.) Agha Humayun Amin, Pakistan Army high command commanders had not seriously considered an Indian invasion of East Pakistan until December 1971 because it was presumed that the Indian military would not risk Chinese or U.S. intervention. Maj Mazhar states that the PA’s senior command failed to realise that the Chinese would be unable to intervene during the winter months of November to December 1971 period due to snowbound Himalayan passes and the U.S. had not made any real effort to persuade India against attacking East Pakistan.[19]

1971–1977[edit]

A Pakistan International Airlines flight was sent to fetch Zulfikar Ali Bhutto from New York, who at that time was presenting Pakistan’s case before the United Nations Security Council on the East Pakistan Crises. Bhutto returned home on 18 December 1971. On 20 December, he was taken to the President House in Rawalpindi where he took over two positions from Yahya Khan, one as President and the other as Chief Martial Law Administrator. Thus he was the first civilian Chief Martial Law Administrator of the Pakistan.

1977–1999[edit]

Two AH-1S Cobra attack helicopters of the Pakistan Army Aviation Wing at AVN Base, Multan. These were sold to Pakistan by the U.S. during the Soviet-Afghan war to help defend Pakistan against a possible attack by the Soviets.

In 1977 a coup was staged by General Zia ul-Haq and the government was overthrown. This led to the hanging of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto after he was tried and proclaimed guilty of conspiracy of murdering a politician named Kasuri by Zia’s handpicked judges. Zia reneged on his promise of holding elections within 90 days and ruled as a military dictator until his death in an air crash in 1988. General Mohammad Iqbal Khan served as a joint chief from 1980 to 1984 and was the Chief Martial Law Officer during that time.

In the mid-1970s the Pakistan Army was involved in fighting an uprising in Balochistan. Various Balochi factions, some with the oblique support of the USSR, wanted independence or at least greater provincial rights. The rebellion was put down on the behest of the Bhutto government but the Army suffered heavy casualties. After Bhutto was deposed, the province returned to normalcy under General Rahimuddin.

In the 1980s, Pakistani armed forces co-operated with the United States to provide arms, ammunition and intelligence assistance to Afghan mujahideen who were fighting the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. The U.S. supplied modern military equipment to Pakistan.

During the 1st Gulf War Pakistan Army contributed troops for the defence of Saudi Arabia against possible Iraqi retaliation. Although Pakistan Army saw few actions their still its performance was remarkable. The 153 Lt AirDefence (GM/SP) Regiment deployed in Tabuk scored multiple hits on number of Iraqi Scuds and provided round the clock Air Defence protection to Saudi Troops in the Area.

1999–present[edit]

Army Welfare Trust, Rawalpindi

A Pakistan army soldier Keeping watch at Baine Baba Ziarat in Swat

Pakistani forces after victory in Operation Black Thunderstorm.

In October 1999, after the Kargil War ended with the unconditional withdrawal of the Pakistani forces from the Indian controlled peaks, the Pakistan Army overthrew a democratically elected government for the fourth time, resulting in additional sanctions being applied against Pakistan, leading to General Pervez Musharraf coming to power in a bloodless coup. However, this time Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif sacked Musharraf when he was on his way to Pakistan from Colombo. He dismissed the Army Chief and appointed General Ziauddin Butt as Army Chief when Musarraf’s plane was in the air. That was not enough, the plane was not allowed to land at the Karachi Airport and barricades were erected on the runway. The corps commanders acted swiftly across Pakistan, particularly in Karachi and Islamabad. Brigadiar Muzaffar Usmani took control of Karachi Airport and arrested the Inspector General of Sind Police, Rana Maqbool Ahmed. Musharraf stepped down as President in August 2008. On 30 July 2009, the Pakistan Supreme Court ruled that Musharraf’s imposition of Emergency Rule in 2007 was unconstitutional.[20]

After the September 11 attacks in the United States, Pakistan joined the US-led War on Terrorand helped the United States armed forces by severing ties with the Taliban and immediately deploying 72,000 troops along Pakistan’s western border to capture or kill Taliban and al-Qaida militants fleeing from Afghanistan. On the north western front, Pakistan initially garrisoned its troops in military bases and forts in the tribal areas. In May 2004 clashes erupted between the Pakistani troops and al-Qaeda’s and other militants joined by local rebels and pro-Taliban forces. However, the offensive was poorly coordinated and the Pakistan Army suffered heavy casualties, while public support for the attack quickly evaporated. After a two-year conflict from 2004 until 2006, the Pakistani military negotiated a ceasefire with the tribesmen from the region in which they pledged to hunt down al-Qaeda members, stop the Talibanisation of the region and stop attacks in Afghanistan and Pakistan. However, the militants did not hold up their end of the bargain and began to regroup and rebuild their strength from the previous two years of conflict.

Militants took over the Lal Masjid in Islamabad. After a six-month standoff fighting erupted again in July 2007 when the Pakistani military decided to use force to end the Lal Masjid threat. Once the operation ended, the newly formed Pakistani Taliban, an umbrella group of all militants based in FATA, vowed revenge and launched a wave of attacks and suicide bombings which erupted all over North-West Pakistan and major Pakistani cities, including Karachi, throughout 2007.

The militants then expanded their base of operations and moved into the neighbouring Swat Valley, where they imposed Sharia law. The Pakistan Army launched an offensive to re-take the Swat Valley in 2007, but was unable to clear it of the militants who had fled into the mountains and waited for them to leave before taking over the valley again. The militants then launched another wave of terrorist attacks inside Pakistan. The Pakistani government and military tried another peace deal with the militants in Swat Valley in 2008. This was roundly criticised in the West as abdicating to the militants. After initially pledging to lay down their arms if Sharia Law was implemented, the Pakistani Taliban subsequently used the Swat Valley as a springboard to launch further attacks into neighbouring regions, reaching to within 60 kilometres (37 mi) of Islamabad.

Pakistan Army Troops on Routine Patrol

Public opinion then turned decisively against the Pakistani Taliban. This opinion was highlighted following the release of a video showing the flogging of a girl by the Pakistani Taliban in Swat Valley. Similar events and terrorist attacks finally forced the Pakistan Army to launch a decisive attack against the Taliban occupying Swat Valley in April 2009, after having received orders from the political leadership.[21] After heavy fighting the Swat Valley was largely pacified by July 2009, although isolated pockets of Taliban remained in the area.

The next phase of Pakistan Army’s offensive was the formidable Waziristan region. A US drone attack killed the leader of the Pakistani Taliban, Baitullah Mehsud, in August. A power struggle engulfed the Pakistani Taliban during September, but by October a new leader had emerged, Hakimullah Mehsud. Under his leadership, the Pakistani Taliban launched another wave of terrorist attacks throughout Pakistan, killing hundreds of people. After a few weeks of air strikes, artillery and mortar attacks, 30,000 troops moved on South Waziristan, in a three pronged attack. The Pakistan Army re-took South Waziristan and is currently thinking of expanding the campaign to North Waziristan.

On April 2012 an avalanche struck the 6th Northern Light Infantry Battalion headquarters in Ghyari sector of Siachen, entrapping 135 soldiers.[22]

UN Peacekeeping Missions[edit]

A Pakistani UNOSOM armed convoy making the rounds.

In the wake of the new world power equilibrium a more complex security environment has emerged. It is characterised by growing national power politics and state implosions which have necessitated involvement of the United Nations peace keeping forces for conflict resolution.

The United Nations has been undertaking peace keeping operations since its inception, but the need for employment of peace keeping forces has increased significantly since the Gulf War. In 1992 there were 11,000 Blue Berets deployed around the world, by the end of the year the figure rose to 52,000. Presently it exceeds 80,000 troops.

  • UN Operation in Congo (ONUC) 1960–1964
  • UN Security Force in New GuineaWest Irian (UNSF) 1962–1963
  • UN Yemen Observer Mission Yemen (UNYOM) 1963–1964
  • UN Transition Assistance Group in Namibia (UNTAG) 1989–1990
  • UN Iraq–Kuwait Observer Mission (UNIKOM) 1991–2003
  • UN Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) 1993–1996
  • UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) 1992–1993
  • UN Operations in Somalia (UNOSOM) 1992–1995
  • UN Protection Forces in Bosnia (UNPROFOR) 1992–1995
  • UN Observer Mission for Rawanda (UNAMIR) 1993–1996
  • UN Verification Mission in Angola (UNAVEM III) 1995–1997
  • UN Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia(UNTAES) 1996–1997
  • UN Mission of Observers in Prevlaka (UNMOP) 1996–2002
  • UN Assistance Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) 2001–2005
  • UN Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) 1999-to-date

The table below shows the current deployment of Pakistani Forces in UN Peacekeeping missions.

Start of operation Name of Operation Location Conflict Contribution
1999 United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of Congo Second Congo War 3,556 Troops.[23]
2003 United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) Liberia Liberia Second Liberian Civil War 2,741 Troops.[23]
2004 United Nations Operation in Burundi ONUB Burundi Burundi Burundi Civil War 1,185 Troops.[23]
2004 United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire (UNOCI) Ivory Coast Côte d’Ivoire Civil war in Côte d’Ivoire 1,145 Troops.[23]
2005 United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS) Sudan Sudan Second Sudanese Civil War 1,542 Troops.[23]
Staff/Observers 191 Observers.[23]
  • The total amount of troops serving currently in peacekeeping missions is 10,173 (as of March 2007).

Organization[edit]

Pakistan Army
Flag of the Pakistani Army.svg
Leadership
Chief of Army Staff
Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee
Organisation and Components
Structure of the Pakistan Army
Frontier Corps
Frontier Works Organisation
Special Service Group
Army Cantonment Board
Pakistan Armoured Corps
Installations
General Headquarters
Pakistan Military Academy
Command and Staff College
National Defence University
Personnel
Army Ranks of Pakistan
Pakistan Army Generals
Equipment
Modern equipment
History and Traditions
Military history of Pakistan
UN Peacekeeping Missions
Pakistan Army FC
Awards, Decorations and Badges
Awards and Decorations
Nishan-e-Haider

Command Structure[edit]

The President of Pakistan is the civilian supreme commander of the Pakistan Armed Forcesby statute, while the Prime Minister of Pakistan served as the Chief Executive of Pakistan Armed Forces, both people-elected civilians, Prime Minister and President, maintains thecivilian control of the military. The Chief of the Army Staff (COAS), a four-star general, is the highest general officer (unless the four-star general is Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee), a field and operational commander as well as a highest army four-star general officer, directs the non-combat and combatant operations from army combatant headquarters in Rawalpindi, near Islamabad. The Principal Staff Officers (PSO) assisting him in his duties at the Lieutenant-General level include a Chief of General Staff (CGS), under whom the Military Operations and Intelligence Directorates function; the Chief of Logistics Staff (CLS); the Adjutant General (AG); the Quarter-Master General (QMG); the Inspector General of Training and Evaluation (IGT and E); the Military Secretary (MS); and the Engineer-in-Chief, a top army topographer. A major reorganisation in GHQ was done in September 2008 under General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani, when two new PSO positions were introduced: the Inspector General Arms and the Inspector General Communications and IT, thus raising the number of PSO’s to eight.[24]

The headquarters function also includes the Judge Advocate General (JAG), and the Comptroller of Civilian Personnel, the Engineer-in-Chief of the Corps of Engineers who is also head of Military Engineering Service (MES), all of them also report to the Chief of the Army Staff. Although most of the officer corps were generally Muslim by the 1970s, there were still serving Christian officers the highest rank being attained by Major General Julian Peter who served as the General Officer Commanding of a Division and as general staff officer at Army Headquarters up-till 2006.

Commissioned officers rank[edit]

Main article: Army ranks of Pakistan

The rank structure is patterned on the British Army model. It consists of commissioned officersnon-commissioned officers and the junior commissioned officers.

Commissioned Officers Ranks of the Pakistan Army
Pay grade O-10 O-9 O-8 O-7 O-6 O-5 O-4 O-3 O-2 O-1
Insignia General pak army.jpg
US-O10 insignia.svg
Lt Gen.jpg
US-O9 insignia.svg
Maj Gen.jpg
US-O8 insignia.svg
Brigadier pak army.jpg
US-O7 insignia.svg
Colonel pak army.jpg Lt Col.jpg Major pak army.jpg Captain pak army.jpg Lieutenant.jpg 2 lieutenant.jpg
Title General Lieutenant-General Major-General Brigadier Colonel Lieutenant-Colonel Major Captain Lieutenant Second Lieutenant
Abbreviation Gen LGen MGen Brig Col LCol Maj Capt Lt SLt
NATO Code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1
Rank Hierarchy 4-star General 3-star General 2-star General 1-star Officer

Non-commissioned officers wear respective regimental color chevrons on the right sleeve. Centre point of the uppermost chevron must remain 10 cm from the point of the shoulder. Company / battalion appointments wear the appointments badges on the right wrist.

Structure of Non-Commissioned Officers Ranks of Pakistan Army
Pay grade OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
Insignia Batal H M.jpg Batallion Qu Havildar.jpg Comp Havildar Major.jpg Comp Quat Havildar.jpg Havildar.jpg Naik.jpg Lance Naik.jpg No insignia No insignia
Title Battalion Havildar Major Battalion Quartermaster Havildar Company Havildar Major Company Quartermaster Havildar Havildar Naik Lance Naik Sepoy No Equivalent
Abbreviation BHM BQMH CHM CQMH HLD NK LN S NE
NATO Code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
Junior Commissioned Officer Ranks
Insignia Subedar Major.jpg Subedar.jpg Naib Subedar.jpg
Title Subedar Major (infantry and other arms)/Risaldar Major (cavalry and armour) Subedar (infantry and other arms)/Risaldar (cavalry and armour) Naib Subedar (infantry and other arms)/Naib Risaldar (cavalry and armour)

Structure of Army units[edit]

The Pakistan Army is divided into two main branches, which are Arms and Services.

Operational Commands[edit]

The army operates three commands during peace time. Each command is headed by General Officer Commanding-in-Chief with the rank of Lieutenant General. Each command is directly affiliated to the Army HQ in Rawalpindi.

According to Globalsecurity.org, drawing on Pakistani media sources, three commands, supervising a number of corps each, have been formed: Northern Command, Central Command, and Southern Command.[25][26]

Corps[edit]

corps is an army field formation responsible for a zone within a command theatre. There are three types of corps in the Pakistani Army: Strike, Holding and Mixed. A command generally consists of two or more corps. A corps has Army divisions under its command. The Corps HQ is the highest field formation in the army.

There are 13 Corps in Pakistan Army. 9 of these Corps are composed of Infantry, Mechanised, Armoured, Artillery and Anti-Tank divisions and brigades. Army Air Defence Command is another Corps of Pakistan Army which plays the role of Anti-Aircraft Artillery whereas Army Aviation Corps provides air support to Pakistan Army. Army Strategic Forces Command is responsible for training, deployment and activation of Pakistan’s nuclear missiles. The last Corps is called the Northern Area Command which is Headquartered at Gilgit and is reported to have 5 Infantry Brigades.[27][28][29][30][31][32]

Forces in action or poised for action include XI Corps, which has been heavily engaged in fighting the Taliban and other extremists along Pakistan’s north-western border, and 323rd Infantry Brigade, part of Forces Command Northern Areas, on the Siachen Glacier.

The peace time commands are given below in their correct order of raising, and location (city).

Flag of the Pakistani Army.svg Headquarters, Pakistani ArmyRawalpindi, Punjab

    • I Corps – headquartered at Mangla Cantonment
      • 6th Armoured Division headquartered at Gujranwala
      • 17th Infantry Division headquartered at Kharian
      • 37th Infantry Division headquartered at Kharian
      • 11th Independent Armoured Brigade
      • Independent Air Defense Brigade
      • Independent Artillery Brigade
      • Independent Infantry Brigade
    • II Corps – headquartered at Multan
      • 1st Armoured Division headquartered at Multan
      • 14th Infantry Division headquartered at Okara
      • 40th Infantry Division headquartered at Okara
      • Independent Armoured Brigade
      • Independent Air Defense Brigade
      • Independent Artillery Brigade
      • Independent Infantry Brigade
    • IV Corps – headquartered at Lahore
      • 2nd Artillery Division headquartered at Gujranwala
      • 10th Infantry Division headquartered at Lahore
      • 11th Infantry Division headquartered at Lahore
      • 3rd Independent Armoured Brigade
      • 212th Infantry Brigade
      • Independent Artillery Brigade
    • XXX Corps – headquartered at Gujranwala
      • 8th Infantry Division headquartered at Sialkot
      • 15th Infantry Division headquartered at Sialkot
      • 2nd Independent Armoured Brigade
      • Independent Anti-Tank Brigade
      • Independent Artillery Brigade
    • XXXI Corps – headquartered at Bahawalpur
      • 26th Mechanised Division headquartered atBahawalpur[33]
      • 35th Infantry Division headquartered at Bahawalpur
      • 13th Independent Armoured Brigade
      • 101st Independent Infantry Brigade

Other Field Formations[edit]

  • Division: An Army Division is an intermediate between a Corps and a Brigade. It is the largest striking force in the army. Each Division is headed by [General Officer Commanding] (GOC) in the rank of Major General. It usually consists of 15,000 combat troops and 8,000 support elements. Currently, the Pakistani Army has 29 Divisions including 20 Infantry Divisions, 2 Armoured Divisions, 2 Mechanized Divisions, 2 Air Defence Divisions, 2 Strategic Divisions and 1 Artillery Division. Each Division composes of several Brigades.
  • Brigade: A Brigade generally consists of around 3,000 combat troops with supporting elements. An Infantry Brigade usually has 3 Infantry Battalions along with various Support Arms & Services. It is headed by a Brigadier, equivalent to a Brigadier General in some armies. In addition to the Brigades in various Army Divisions, the Pakistani Army also has 7 Independent Armoured Brigades, 5 Independent Artillery Brigades, 3 Independent Infantry Brigades, 3 Anti-Tank Brigades. These Independent Brigades operate directly under the Corps Commander (GOC Corps).
  • Regiment: A regiment is commanded by a Colonel.
  • Battalion: A Battalion is commanded by a Lieutenant-Colonel and is the Infantry’s main fighting unit. It consists of more than 900 combat personnel.
  • Company: Headed by the Major/Captain, a Company comprises about 120–150 soldiers.
  • Platoon: An intermediate between a Company and Section, a Platoon is headed by a Lieutenant or depending on the availability of Commissioned Officers, a Junior Commissioned Officer, with the rank of Subedar or Naib-Subedar. It has a total strength of about 30–36 troops.
  • Section: Smallest military outfit with a strength of about 9–13 personnel. Commanded by a Non-commissioned officer of the rank ofHavildar Major or Sergeant Major.

Regiments[edit]

Pakistan’s Honor Guards at the Aiwan-e-SadrIslamabad

There are several battalions or units associated together in an infantry regiment. The infantry regiment in the Pakistani Army is an administrative military organisation and not a field formation. All the battalions of a regiment do not fight together as one formation, but are dispersed over various formations, viz. brigades, divisions and corps. An infantry battalion serves for a period of time under a formation and then moves to another, usually in another sector or terrain when its tenure is over. Occasionally, battalions of the same regiment may serve together for a tenure.

Most of the infantry regiments of the Pakistani Army originate from the old British Indian Army and recruit troops from a region or of specific ethnicities.

Regiments of the Pakistani Army include:

Special forces[edit]

The Special Services Group (SSG) is an independent commando regiment/corps of the Pakistan Army. It is an elite special operationsforce similar to the United States Army Special Forces (Green Berets) and the British Army‘s SAS.

Special Service Group Commandos of Pakistan Army

Official numbers are put at 2,100 men, in 3 battalions; however the actual strength isclassified.[34] It is estimated to have been increased to 4 Battalions, with the eventual formation of 2 Brigades of Special Forces (6 Battalions).

Combat doctrine[edit]

A Pakistan Army soldier deployed during an exercise and armed with the Heckler & Koch G3, the PA’s standard assault rifle.

The Pakistan Army has developed a doctrine called the Riposte which is a limited “offensive-defence”[35] doctrine. It has refined it consistently starting in 1989 during the “Exercise Zarb-e-Momin”. This doctrine is fully focused towards Pakistan’s archenemy, India.

The doctrine is derived from several factors:[36]

  1. The vulnerability of Pakistan is that so many of its major population centres and politically and military sensitive targets lie very close to the border with India. As such Pakistan can ill-afford to lose large territories to an Indian attack.
  2. ‘Strategic depth’ in the form of a friendly Afghanistan is deemed vital by military planners.
  3. India has substantially enhanced its offensive capabilities, with the Cold Start Doctrine. Any counterattack would be very tricky against the large number of Indian troops involved. The response of the Pakistani army includes the development of theNasr missile.
  4. Holding formations in both India and Pakistan can man their forward defensive positions and fortifications in less than 24 hours. However, Corps level reserves with large stockpiles of munitions will take between 24 to 72 hours for mobilisation after being given their orders. In this regard, both armies will be evenly matched in the first 24 hours since the Pakistani units have to travel a shorter distance to their forward positions.

Pakistan Army Contingent in Cambrian Patrol Exercise.

This doctrine entails Pakistan in the event of hostilities with India will not wait for the enemy’s offensive, but rather launch an offensive of its own. The offensive will be a limited advance along narrow fronts with the aim of occupying territory near the border to a depth of 40–50 km. Since Indian forces will not reach their maximum strength near the border for another 48–72 hours, Pakistan might have parity or numerical superiority against the Indians.

The Pakistani Army hopes to accomplish three things under this strategy:[36]

  1. The enemy is kept off-balance as it will be tied up containing the Pakistani offensive into its territory rather than launching an offensive into Pakistani territory.
  2. The Pakistani Army hopes to contain the fighting on the Indian side of the border so that any collateral or other damage will be suffered by India.
  3. Indian territory of strategic importance once seized, will give the Pakistani Army a bargaining chip to be used in the aftermath of a ceasefire brought about by international pressure after 3–4 weeks of fighting.
  4. The use of tactical battlefield nuclear missile such as Nasr missile that provide maximal damage against massed troops for extremely limited collateral casualties.

KashmirLine of Control and the Northern Punjab areas are heavily fortified and ill-suited for large mechanised offensives. The most likely area where Pakistan might launch its offensive is the semi-desert and desert sectors in southern Punjab and Sindh provinces.

To supplement this doctrine, the Army in the 1990s created a strong centralised corps of reserves for its formations. The force is known as Army Reserve South and is a grouping of several powerful Corps from Pakistan’s Order of Battle. These formations have been rapidly equipped with assets needed for mechanised capability. These reserve formations are dual-capable, meaning they can be used for offensive as well as defensive (holding) purposes. Pakistan has also increased its ammunitionfuel and other military stockpiles to last for 45 days in case of a conflict. During the 1965 war for instance, Pakistan only had 13-day reserves which hampered its military operations.

The possibility of a major war of the sort against which earlier doctrines had eveolved came into question after May 1998 when both sides overtly demonstrated their nuclear capability. The Kargil conflict and the military standoff with India in 2002 led to various stability theories being viewd with scepticism on both sides. India realised the need to drastically reduce the time taken to build up its forces from all over the country towards its western borders and strike early while Pakistani defences on the one hand and diplomatic manoeuvre on the other were still unprepared. To this end, the Cold Start Doctrine and its tactical extension, proactive operations were developed and practised by the Indian Army and later the Navy and the Airforce variants thereof. Against cold start and proactive operations, Pakistan began developing its response at the joint services level with notable changes in how the land forces viewed existential and future threat. The intellectual powerhouse for this was led by the Chielf of the Army Staff, the commandant of the Armed Forces War College, selected corps commanders and a team of senior brigadiers. The Azm-e-Nau (New Resolve)[37][38] series of war games were conducted and a new doctrine evolved. These exrcises and war-games culminated in the massive Azm-e-Nau 3 which was conducted in the deserts of Bahawalpur and upper Punjab in April and May 2010. The Army set up a doctrines concepts and development division under a top brigadier to evelove high, mid and low level doctrines for the army. The Pakistan Army Doctrine, Pakistan Defence Doctrine and a series of publications were developed between 2010 and 2011. Pakistan Army Doctrine with its main authors General Hanif and Brigadier General Zaidi is an opensource document and as such marks a turning point in Pakistan Army’s approach to warfare and warfighting in the wake of new challenges. Traditionally secretive and protective of its doctrines, the Pakistan Army Doctrine, when it becomes openly available, would be the first time that Pakistan allows greater insight to its strategic thinking, workings and the use of military power.

Involvement in Pakistani Society[edit]

Pakistan Army’s MI-17 helicopter airlifting survivors of flood in northern areas of Pakistan

The Pakistan Army has played an integral part in the civil society of Pakistan, almost since its inception.[39] In 1996, General Jehangir Karamat described Pakistan armed forces’ relations with the society:

In my opinion, if we have to repeat of past events then we must understand that Military leaders can pressure only up to a point. Beyond that their own position starts getting undermined because the military is after all is a mirror image of the civil society from which it is drawn.
—General Jehangir Karamat on civil society–military relations, [39]

In times of natural disaster, such as the great floods of 1992 or the October 2005 devastatingearthquake, army engineers, medical and logistics personnel, and the armed forces played a major role in bringing relief and supplies.

The army also engaged in extensive corporate activities. Most of these enterprises, such as stud and dairy farms, were for the army’s own use, but others performed functions in local civilian economy such as bakeries, security services and banking. Army factories produced such goods as sugar, fertiliser, and brass castings and sold them to civilian consumers albeit at prices higher than those charged from military personnel.[40]

Several army organisations operate in the commercial sector across the country. For example, the National Logistics Cell was responsible for trucking food and other goods across the country; the Frontier Works Organization built the Karakoram Highway to China; and the Special Communication Organization maintained communications networks in remote parts of Pakistan. The Pakistan Army has been involved in relief activities not only in Pakistan but also in many other countries of the world, such as the relief activities after Bangladesh was recently hit by floods. The Army also despatched relief to Indonesia, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka after they were hit by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and the resulting tsunami. Both the Pakistan Army and Navy sent ships and helicopters to assist in the tsunami relief operation.

Personnel[edit]

According to the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) the Pakistan Army has an active force of 725,000 personnel in 2013.[3] In addition there were around 500,000 reserves.

Personnel training[edit]

Enlisted ranks[edit]

Most enlisted personnel used to come from rural families, and many have only rudimentary literacy skills, but with the increase in the literacy level the requirements have been raised to Matriculate level (10th Grade). Recruits are processed gradually through a paternalistically run regimental training center, taught the official language, Urdu, if necessary, and given a period of elementary education before their military training actually starts.

In the thirty-six-week training period, they develop an attachment to the regiment they will remain with through much of their careers and begin to develop a sense of being a Pakistani rather than primarily a member of a tribe or a village. Enlisted men usually serve for eighteen years, during which they participate in regular training cycles and have the opportunity to take academic courses to help them advance.

Officer ranks[edit]

Each year, about 320 men and women enter the army bi-annually through the Pakistan Military Academy at Kakul in Abbottabad in theKhyber Pakhtunkhwa; a small number—like doctors and technical specialists—are directly recruited, and are part of the officer corps. The product of a highly competitive selection process, members of the officer corps have completed twelve years of education and spend two years at the Pakistan Military Academy, with their time divided about equally between military training and academic work to bring them up to a baccalaureate education level, which includes English-language skills.

Academic institutions[edit]

The army has twelve other training and educational establishments, including schools concentrating on specific skills such as infantry, artillery, intelligence, engineering, or mountain warfare. The National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) has been established which has absorbed the existing colleges of engineering, signals, electrical engineering and medicine. At the apex of the army training system is the Command and Staff College at Quetta, one of the few institutions inherited from the colonial period. The college offers a ten-month course in tactics, staff duties, administration, and command functions through the division level. Students from foreign countries, including the United States, have attended the school but reportedly have been critical of its narrow focus and failure to encourage speculative thinking or to give adequate attention to less glamorous subjects, such as logistics.[citation needed]

The senior training institution for all service branches is the National Defence University, Islamabad. Originally established in 1971 atRawalpindi, to provide training in higher military strategy for senior officers, the institution was relocated to Islamabad in 1995. It also offers courses that allow civilians to explore the broader aspects of national security. In a program begun in the 1980s to upgrade the intellectual standards of the officer corps and increase awareness of the wider world, a small group of officers, has been detailed to academic training, achieving master’s degrees and even doctorates at universities in Pakistan and abroad.

Pakistani officers were sent abroad during the 1950s and into the 1960s for training in Britain and other Commonwealth countries, and the United States, where trainees numbering well in the hundreds attended a full range of institutions ranging from armoured and infantry schools to the higher staff and command institutions. After 1961 this training was coordinated under the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program, but numbers varied along with the vicissitudes of the United States-Pakistan military relationship. Of some 200 officers being sent abroad annually in the 1980s, over two-thirds went to the United States, but the cessation of United States aid in 1990 entailed suspension of the IMET program. In 1994 virtually all foreign training was in Commonwealth countries. However, after the9/11 attacks, Pakistan again has begun sending officers to US Army schools. Today there are more than 400 officers serving in foreign countries. Officers retire between the ages of fifty-two and sixty, depending on their rank.

Science and Technology[edit]

Apart from conducting military operations, exercises, and military ethics, the Army maintains its own science and technology corps and organisations. Most notable science and engineering corps including Military Engineering Service (MES) Corps of EngineersCorps of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering (EME), and Frontier Works Organisation. Its Army Army Strategic Forces Command served as the primary military organisation in the matters of conducting and directing research on nuclear and space (such a s military satellites) and antiquities. The army cadets and officers who wished to study science and technology are given admission at theCollege of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering (CEME) and the Military College of Engineering where the scientific and military education are being taught by the colleges. The admissions of engineering colleges are not restricted to civilians as they can also gain admission and graduated with engineering and science degrees from there.

Uniforms[edit]

Pakistan Army uniforms closely resemble those of the British armed services. The principal colour is greenish brown. Dress uniforms were worn mostly on formal occasions. The service uniform was worn for daily duty. The service uniform for the ground forces was khaki (sand/tan) cotton. Officers purchased their uniforms, but enlisted personnel received a standard uniform issue, which consisted of service and field uniforms, fatigues, and in some cases, dress uniforms. The uniforms consisted of shirt, trousers, sweater, jacket or blouse, and boots. There is also a white dress uniform. The fatigues were the same for winter and summer. Heavy winter gear was issued as needed. Headgear included a service cap for dress and semi-dress and a field cap worn with fatigues. Army personnel also wear berets, usually worn in lieu of the service cap.

Brown and black and more recently former US BDU style camouflage fatigues are worn by army troop units. The uniform of a Pakistan army soldier exhibits much information i.e.

Recently Pakistan army has introduced digital camouflage pattern in uniform and resized qualification badges,[41] decorations & awards[42] and the ranks.[43]

Ethnic Composition[edit]

Traditionally, the army was a predominantly Punjabi force because of its dominant Population (Punjab is the most populous province of Pakistan, with approximately 45% of the country’s total population). In British India, three districts: JhelumRawalpindi, and Campbellpur (now Attock) dominated the recruitment flows. By 2007 the percentage representation in the Pakistan Army as a whole (officers and Other Ranks or soldiers) was as follows:
Punjabis (including Punjabi-Pashtuns): 51%
Pashtuns: 21%
Sindhis: 13.5%
Kashmiris: 9.11%
Balochis: 3.2%
Minorities: 0.72%.

Extensive efforts have been made to bring Balochis and Sindhis on par with other ethnicities, presently the army recruitment system is enlisting personnel district-wise irrespective of provincial boundaries. This decision has given a fair chance to every citizen of Pakistan to be part of the Pakistan Army as each district possesses a fixed percentage of seats in all branches of the army, as per census records. Large numbers of men from Sind and Balochistan have joined the ranks of the army and have proved their commitment and bravery to the national cause in Kargil and the ongoing global war on terrorism.[40][44]

Women and minorities[edit]

Women have served in the Pakistan Army since its foundation. Currently, there is a sizeable number of Women serving in the army. Most women are recruited in the regular Army to perform medical and educational work. There is also a Women’s Guard section of Pakistan’s National Guard where women are trained in nursing, welfare and clerical work and there are also women recruited in very limited numbers for the Janbaz Force. Only recently has Pakistan began to recruit women for combat positions and the Elite Anti-Terrorist Force In 2007, several female graduates were nominated to be Sky Marshals for Pakistan based airlines.[45] In addition recently eight of the 41 cadets from the Pakistan Military Academy at Kakul became the first women guards of honour.[46] Pakistan is the only country in the Islamic world to have female Major Generals in the Army.[47] Major General Shahida Badsha Pakistan’s first female three-star general[48]

Recruitment is nationwide and the army attempts to maintain an ethnic balance but most enlisted recruits, as in British times, come from a few districts in northern Punjab Province and the adjacent Azad Jammu and Kashmir and the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Pakistan’s Officer Corps are also mostly from Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and of middle-class, rural backgrounds.[citation needed]

Minorities in Pakistan are allowed to sit in all examinations, including the one conducted by Inter Services Selection Board however the proportion of religious minorities in the Pakistan Army is still considerably less.

There have been numerous Christians who have risen to the rank of Brigadier; and in the 1990 the first Christian promoted to the rank of Major General was Julian Peter who commanded the 14th Div in Okara Cantt. In 2009 brigadier Noel Israel Khokhar, was also promoted to rank of Major General. Capt. Hercharn Singh,the first Sikh as Commissioned Officer in Pakistan Army. He was commissioned in Baloch Regiment. Currently, he’s serving as an ADC to a Corps Commander.

Recipients of Nishan-e-Haider[edit]

Nishan-e-Haider; Pakistan’s highest military award.

The Nishan-e-Haider (Urdu: نشان حیدر) (Sign of the Lion) is the highest military award given by Pakistan, ranking above the Hilal-i-Jur’at (Crescent of Courage). Nishan-e-Haider recipients receive an honorary title as a sign of respect: Shaheed meaning martyr for deceased recipients.

Similar to the American Medal of Honor or the British Victoria Cross, it has only been awarded 10 times since 1947:

Name Unit Conflict Date Place of Death
Captain Muhammad Sarwar 2nd Battalion of the Punjab Regiment War of 1947 27 July 1948 UriKashmir
Major Tufail Mohammad 16th Battalion of the Punjab Regiment 1958 Border clash with India 7 August 1958 Lakshmipur District
Major Aziz Bhatti 17th Battalion of the Punjab Regiment War of 1965 10 September 1965 Lahore District
Major Mohammad Akram 4th Battalion of the Frontier Force Regiment War of 1971 1971 East Pakistan
Pilot Officer Rashid Minhas Shaheed No. 2 Squadron Minhas War of 1971 20 August 1971 Thatta, SindhWest Pakistan
Major Shabbir Sharif 6th Battalion of the Frontier Force Regiment War of 1971 6 December 1971 Salmanki SectorKasur
Lance Naik Muhammad Mahfuz 15th Battalion of the Punjab Regiment War of 1971 8 December 1971 Wagah-Attari
Sawar Muhammad Hussain 20th Lancers, Armoured Corps War of 1971 10 December 1971 Zafarwal-Shakargarh
Captain Karnal Sher Khan 12th Battalion of the Northern Light Infantry Kargil War 5 July 1999 Kargil, Indian administered Kashmir
Havaldar Lalak Jan 12th Battalion of the Northern Light Infantry Kargil War 7 July 1999 Kargil, Indian administered Kashmir

Recipients of Foreign awards[edit]

Two Pakistani pilots belonging to the army aviation branch of Pakistan army who carried out a daring rescue of a mountaineer are to be given Slovenia’s top award for bravery. Slovenian, Tomaz Humar got stranded on the western end of the 8,125m Nanga Parbat mountain where he remained for around a week on top of the world’s ninth-highest peak. The helicopter pilots plucked the 38-year-old from an icy ledge 6,000m up the peak known as “killer mountain”.

The Slovenian president has presented Lt Col Rashid Ullah Beg and Lt Col Khalid Amir Rana with the Golden Order for Services in the country’s capital, Ljubljana, for risking their lives during the rescue mission, a Pakistan army statement said.[49]

Beating hundreds of soldiers from major armies of the world, Pakistan Army has won the coveted Gold Medal at the prestigious Cambrian Patrol Exercise held in Wales with participation from armies of India, Australia, Canada, United States and France among others. 750 soldiers across the world descended on the Brecon Beacons in Wales to suffer through one of the toughest exercises ever devised. The Cambrian patrol tested the soldiering skills of the teams as they crossed some of the most arduous terrain one can imagine. According to ISPR, “Rawalpindi Corps team represented Pakistan Army in Exercise Cambrian Patrol – 2010, held from 11–13 October 2010 and by the Grace of Allah, the team showed an excellent performance by winning a Gold Medal in the event, which is a big honour not only for Army but for the country as a whole.”[50][51][52][53][54]

Equipment[edit]

The equipment currently in use by the Pakistan Army is divided into the following main sections: small arms, armour, artillery, aircraft and air defence systems. Most equipment of the Pakistan Army tend to be either of Chinese, European or American designs.

Arms[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this articleby adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.(March 2013)

The Heckler & Koch G3 is the Pakistan Army’s standard battle rifle, shown here is the G3A3 model.

Weapon Comments
Handguns
Glock 17 Used by Special Services Group as their side arm.
Beretta 92
Glock 26
HK P7
Steyr M9A1 Recently acquired by the SSW.
Tokarev
Sub-machine guns (SMG) and carbines:
Heckler & Koch MP5 Manufactured by POF
Heckler & Koch MP5K Also in use by Airport Security Force and personal security detail of VIPs, manufactured by POF.
FN P90
Battle rifles
Heckler & Koch G3 The PA’s service rifle. G3A3, G3P4 variants in service.
Assault rifles
Type 56 Chinese-manufactured AK-47.[55]
Steyr AUG
Type 81 Assault Rifle Chinese-manufactured
M4 Carbine
FN F2000
Grenades
M67 grenade
Sniper rifles
Dragunov SVD [56]
HK PSG1 [55]
M82 Barret
Steyr SSG 69 [55]
Machine guns
FN MAG
FN Minimi Para
MG3 Manufactured under license by Pakistan Ordnance Factories.[57]
RPD
Grenade launchers
Carl Gustav recoilless rifle
Mk 19 grenade launcher
RPG-7 Manufactured under license by Pakistan Ordnance Factories
RPG-29
Milkor MGL

Armour[edit]

Al-Zarrar MBT

M60 AVLB

Vehicle/System/Aircraft Firm Number in Service Status
Main Battle Tanks (MBT)
Al-Khalid 600[58][59] In service, production and deliveries ongoing, around 600 Al Khalid tanks planned. 300 Al-Khalid ordered initially, later orders for upgraded Al-Khalid I.[60]
T-80UD 320[58][61] 320[62] delivered by Ukraine between 1997 and early 2002, incorporating re-designed T-84 turret.[61]
Type 85-IIAP 275[58][63] 500[citation needed] Type 85-IIAP built under license at Heavy Industries Taxila, later upgraded to Type 85-III.
Al-Zarrar 1400[61] Upgraded form of Type 59-II.[60]
Type 69-II 300,[58]400[61] Produced under license, armed with 105 mm guns.[64]
Type 59 1500,[61]1200[58]
T-54/55 54[61] Some sources say all in reserve storage[58]
Armoured Personnel Carriers (APC)
Hamza Infantry Fighting Vehicle[citation needed]
Al-Fahd Infantry fighting vehicle[citation needed] In Service[citation needed]
Talha[citation needed]Armoured Personnel Carrier Final number to be around 2,000[citation needed]
Sa’ad Armoured Personnel Carrier[citation needed] Currently in production[citation needed]
M113 Armoured Personnel Carrier 1,600[61] In Service
LAZAR-II Mine Resistant APC 3 In Service (More will be Manufactured Under License)
BTR-70/BTR-80 Armoured Personnel Carrier 720[61] In Service[65]
Mohafiz Light Armoured Personnel Carrier  ???[61] In Service & Additional APCs being procured
Otokar Akrep Light Jeep 1,260 In Service[citation needed]
Al Qaswa Logistical Vehicle 500 Being procured
M88 ARV Armoured Recovery Vehicle In Service
Armoured Bridging Vehicles
M60A1 AVLB Armoured Vehicle Launched Bridge In Service
M48 Armoured Vehicle Launched BridgeArmoured Vehicle Launched Bridge In Service

Artillery inventory[edit]

M109 self-propelled howitzer

M115 towed howitzer

M198 towed howitzer

Vehicle/System Calibre Quantity Comments
Self-propelled artillery
M110 203 mm 260[61] Tracked chassis.[61]
M109 (A2/A4/A5) howitzer 155 mm 665[61] Tracked chassis.[61][66]
NORINCOSH1[citation needed] 155 mm 213 6×6 wheeled chassis.[67]
MRLS-Multiple Launch Rocket System
A-100 300mm 100 Confirmed during the recent Azm-e-Nau-3.
KRL-21 155 mm 72 Truck-mounted.
Towed artillery
M115 203 mm 356[61]
MKEK Panter[citation needed] 155 mm 30 Auxiliary power unit can propel the gun at up to 18 km/h.[citation needed]
M198 155 mm 348[61] 95 plus 24 delivered in 1997.[68]
M114 155 mm 244[61]
Type 59I 130 mm 410[61]
Type 54 122 mm 490[61]
M56 105 mm 113[61]
M101 105 mm 216[61]

 

==Aircraft inventory==

Pakistan Army Mi-17 transport helicopter

Two Pakistan Army AH-1S Cobra attack helicopters at AVN Base, Multan

Pakistan Army operates nearly 400 helicopters alongside several aircraft.

Aircraft/System Role Quantity Comments
AH-1F/S Cobra Attack helicopter 40[69] One squadron supplied in 2010.[70]
IAR 330 Utility helicopter 4
Harbin Y-12 Utility aircraft 2
Cessna Citation Bravo Transport aircraft 2[69]
PAC MFI-17 Mushshak Basic Tranning+Light Attack Manufactured under license byPakistan Aeronautical Complex
Aero Commander 840 Transport aircraft 2[69]
Mil Mi-17 Transport helicopter 85[69]
Bell 206 Jet Ranger Utility helicopter 9[69]13[71]
Bell 412 Utility helicopter 95[72]
Bell UH-1 Huey Utility helicopter 200[73]
Eurocopter AS350 Utility helicopter 10[69]
Eurocopter AS355 Utility helicopter
Aérospatiale SA 330 Puma Utility helicopter 60[69]
Aerospatiale SA.316 Alouette III Utility helicopter 10[69] Being phased out.

Anti-tank missiles[edit]

Anti-tank

Air defence systems[edit]

Question book-new.svg
This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section byadding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.(May 2012)
Man-portable air defence systems
Medium altitude air defence systems
High altitude air defence systems
Anti-aircraft guns

Sports[edit]

The Pakistan Army has a noteworthy sports program with elite athletes in many sports disciplines.[76] An example of the program’s success is its basketball program which regularly provides the Pakistan national basketball team with key players.[77]

References[edit]

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  64. ^ Pakistan Military Consortium. http://www.PakDef.info.
  65. ^ Pakistan Military Consortium. http://www.PakDef.info.
  66. ^ SP howitzer (USA) – 155-mm M109 – Military Periscope. Periscope.ucg.com.
  67. ^ SH1 155-mm Self-Propelled Howitzer. Military-Today.com.
  68. ^ Pakistan Military Consortium. http://www.PakDef.info.
  69. a b c d e f g h “Directory: World Air Forces.” Flight International, 11–17 November 2008. Retrieved 1 August 2010.
  70. ^ ONLINE – International News Network. Onlinenews.com.pk.
  71. ^ “Army Aviation Corps Equipment”. GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
  72. ^ “More Bell 412s for Pakistan’s Military”. Defenseindustrydaily.com. 23 September 2010. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
  73. ^ bell | cessna | lockheed jetstar | 2004 | 09–2372 | Flight Archive. Flightglobal.com (22 November 2004).
  74. ^ Foreign Military Sale: Pakistan – TOW-2A Anti-Armor Guided Missiles. Spacewar.com.
  75. ^ Pakistan Military Consortium. http://www.PakDef.info.
  76. ^ Pakistan Army – Sports, http://www.pakistanarmy.gov.pk. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
  77. ^ Basketball team named for 11th South Asian Games, http://www.nation.com.pk. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
Bibliography

External links[edit]

Official websites
Web resources

Pakistan Army

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Pakistan Army
Flag of the Pakistani Army
Pakistan Army
Founded 14 August 1947
Country Pakistan
Type Army
Size 550,000 active troops
500,000 reserves
Headquarters RawalpindiGHQ
Motto Arabic:Iman, Taqwa, Jihad fi Sabilillah
A follower of none but Allah, The fear of Allah, Jihad for Allah.[1]
Colors Green and White
        
Anniversaries Defence Day: September 6
Engagements 1947 Indo-Pakistan War
1965 Indo-Pakistan War
1971 Indo-Pakistan War
Grand Mosque Seizure
Soviet-Afghan War
Siachen conflict
Kargil War
Global War on Terror
Siege of Lal Masjid
War in North-West Pakistan
Commanders
Chief of Army Staff General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani
Notable
commanders
Field Marshal Ayub Khan
General Yahya Khan
General Zia-ul-haq
General Pervez Musharraf
Aircraft flown
Attack Bell AH-1 Cobra
Helicopter Bell 412Bell 407Bell 206Bell UH-1 Huey
Transport Mil Mi-8/17Aérospatiale Alouette III,Bell 412

The Pakistan Army (Urduپاک فوج Pak Fauj (IPA: Pɑkʰ fɒ~ɔd͡ʒ); reporting name: PA) is the land-based uniform service branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces. The Pakistan Army came into existence after the independence of Pakistan in 1947. The Pakistan Army is a volunteer professional fighting force.[2] According to the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) it has an active force of 725,000 personnel in April 2013.[3] The Constitution of Pakistan contains a provision for conscription, but it has never been imposed.

The primary mandate and mission of the army is to “dedicated to the service of the nation.”[4] Since establishment in 1947, the army (along with its inter–services: NavyMarines and PAF) has been involved in four wars with neighboring India and several border skirmishes with Afghanistan.[5] Since 1947, it has maintain strong presence, along with its inter-services, in the influential the Arab states during the past Arab-Israeli Wars, and aided thecoalition in the first Gulf War. Recently, major joint-operations undertaken by the army include Operation Black Thunderstorm and Operation Rah-e-Nijat. Apart from conflicts, the army has been an active participant in UN missions and played a major role in rescuing trapped American soldiers from Mogadishuof Somalia in 1993 in Operation Gothic Serpent.

Under the Article 243, the Constitution of Pakistan appoints the President of Pakistan as the civilian Commander-in-Chief. The Chief of Army Staff (COAS), by statute a four-star general, is appointed by the President with the consultation and confirmation needed from the Prime Minister of Pakistan.[6]The Chief of Army Staff (In article 6 of Warrant of Precedence of Pakistan) is subordinate to the civilian Defence Minister (In article 5 of Warrant of Precedence for Pakistan) and senior to Secretary of Defence (In article 16 of Warrant of Precedence for Pakistan, the Secretary of Defence is even junior to a Lieutenant General who is placed in article 15 of Warrant of Precedence of Pakistan) commands the army. Although it is currently commanded by General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani, the highest ranking army officer in the army is the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee General Khalid Shameem Wynne.[7][8]

Contents

 [hide

Mission[edit]

Pakistan Army serves as the land-based branch of the Pakistan Military. Chapter 2 of PART XII of Pakistani Constitution defines the purpose of the Army as:[9]

The Armed Forces shall, under the directions of the Federal Government, defend Pakistan against external aggression or threat of war, and, subject to law, act in aid of civil power when called upon to do so.[10]

History[edit]

1947–1958[edit]

General Ayub Khan arriving to take command of the Pakistan Army in 1951

The Pakistan Army was created on 30 June 1947 with the division of the British Indian Army. The soon to be created Dominion of Pakistan received six armoured, eight artillery and eightinfantry regiments compared to the 12 armoured, forty artillery and twenty one infantry regiments that went to India. Fearing that India would take over the state of Kashmir, irregulars, scouts and tribal groups entered the Muslim majority state of Kashmir to oppose the Maharaja of Kashmir and Kashmiri Hindus and Sikhs in 1947, even though the Maharaja chose to join the Union of India. This led to the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947. Regular army units joined the invasion later on but were stopped after the refusal of the army chief of staff, British officer General Sir Frank Messervy, to obey Pakistani leader Jinnah’s orders to move the army into Kashmir. A ceasefire followed on UN intervention with Pakistan occupying the northwestern part of Kashmir and India occupying the rest. Later, during the 1950s, the Pakistan Army received large amounts of economic and military aid from the United States and Great Britain after signing two mutual defence treaties, the Baghdad Pact, which led to the formation of the Central Treaty Organization, and the South East Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO) in 1954. This aid greatly expanded the Army from its modest beginnings.

The sole division headquarters that went to Pakistan was the 7th. 8th and 9th Divisions were raised in 1947; 10, 12th and 14 Divisions were raised in 1948. 15 Div was raised in 1950. At some point before 1954, 6 Division was raised and 9 Division disbanded. 6 Division was disbanded at some point after 1954 as US assistance was available only for one armoured and six infantry divisions.

1958–1969[edit]

Pakistan Army took over from politicians for the first time when General Ayub Khan came to power through a bloodless coup in 1958. He formed Convention Muslim League which includes Pakistan’s first elected Prime Minister Z.A. Bhutto. Tensions with India continued in the 1960s and a brief border skirmish was fought near the Rann of Kutch area during April 1965. On the night of 6 September 1965 Indian Army attacked the Punjab Province of Pakistan, without an announcement, Pakistan hold them off, eventually capturing about 1200 km area inside India but a treaty was reached and the area was given back. The war ended with UN backed ceasefire and followed by Tashkent Declaration. According to the Library of Congress Country Studies conducted by the Federal Research Division of the United States, the war was inconclusive militarily.[11] The war was militarily inconclusive; each side held prisoners and some territory belonging to the other.

The Pakistan Army considers itself to have achieved a victory because it simply insists and ignores the treaty of Tashkent by saying it was arranged by USSR, who managed to hold off significantly larger force attacking Pakistani territory at different points, which the PA did not expect and was not prepared or equipped for. Indian sources as well as neutral sources disagree and call the end result an Indian victory. All though Pakistan failed in Kashmir. Highly effective support from the Pakistan Air Force, which was unexpected, is often considered to have neutralized India’s advantage in quantity of forces. The accurate artillery fire provided by the PA artillery units is also stated to have played a significant role.

An uprising against General Ayub Khan during 1968 and 1969 resulted in Ayub Khan relinquishing his office as President and Chief of Army Staff in favor of General Yahya Khan, who assumed power in 1969. 16 Division, 18 Division and 23 Division were raised at some point between 1966 and 1969 and 9 Division was re-raised during this period.

1969–1971[edit]

During the rule of Yahya Khan, the people of East Pakistan protested against various political and economic disparities that had been imposed on them by West Pakistan and massive civil unrest broke out in East Pakistan. During operations against these rebels, calledOperation Searchlight, a faction of the Pakistan Army under General Yahya Khan was responsible for the 1971 Bangladesh atrocities.[12] Beginning with the start of Operation Searchlight on 25 March 1971 and due to the Bangladesh Liberation War, there were numerous human rights abuses in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) perpetrated by the Pakistan Army, with support from local political and religious militias, especially against Hindus.[13][14] Time reported a high ranking U.S. official as saying “It is the most incredible, calculated thing since the days of the Nazis in Poland.”[15]

The original plan envisioned taking control of the major cities on 26 March 1971, and then eliminating all opposition, political or military,[16] within one month. The prolonged Bengali resistance was not anticipated by Pakistani planners.[17] The main phase of Operation Searchlight ended with the fall of the last major town in Bengali hands in the mid of May.

Soon heavy fighting broke out between Pakistani army and India-backed Bengali freedom fighters,in this period Pak army killed estimated 3 Million Bengali people.In December 1971,Pakistan attacked India’s western air based that started war of 1971.In eastern theater Pak army was decimated by Indian Army and Bengali freedom fighters,while in west front,Pak army was defeated in battles of Basanter and Longewalla.

On 16 December 1971, Lt. Gen A. A. K. Niazi, CO of Pakistan Army forces located in East Pakistan signed the Instrument of Surrender.Over 93,000 Pakistani troops surrendered to the Indian forces, making it the largest surrender since World War II.

In 1997 R. J. Rummel published a book, available on the web, called “Statistics of Democide: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900”, In Chapter 8 called “Statistics Of Pakistan’s Democide Estimates, Calculations, And Sources” he looks at the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War. Rummel wrote:

In East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) [the President of Pakistan, General Agha Mohammed Yahya Khan, and his top generals] also planned to murder its Bengali intellectual, cultural, and political elite. They also planned to indiscriminately murder hundreds of thousands of its Hindus and drive the rest into India. And they planned to destroy its economic base to insure that it would be subordinate to West Pakistan for at least a generation to come. This plan may be perceived as genocide.[18]

According to Maj. (Retd.) Agha Humayun Amin, Pakistan Army high command commanders had not seriously considered an Indian invasion of East Pakistan until December 1971 because it was presumed that the Indian military would not risk Chinese or U.S. intervention. Maj Mazhar states that the PA’s senior command failed to realise that the Chinese would be unable to intervene during the winter months of November to December 1971 period due to snowbound Himalayan passes and the U.S. had not made any real effort to persuade India against attacking East Pakistan.[19]

1971–1977[edit]

A Pakistan International Airlines flight was sent to fetch Zulfikar Ali Bhutto from New York, who at that time was presenting Pakistan’s case before the United Nations Security Council on the East Pakistan Crises. Bhutto returned home on 18 December 1971. On 20 December, he was taken to the President House in Rawalpindi where he took over two positions from Yahya Khan, one as President and the other as Chief Martial Law Administrator. Thus he was the first civilian Chief Martial Law Administrator of the Pakistan.

1977–1999[edit]

Two AH-1S Cobra attack helicopters of the Pakistan Army Aviation Wing at AVN Base, Multan. These were sold to Pakistan by the U.S. during the Soviet-Afghan war to help defend Pakistan against a possible attack by the Soviets.

In 1977 a coup was staged by General Zia ul-Haq and the government was overthrown. This led to the hanging of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto after he was tried and proclaimed guilty of conspiracy of murdering a politician named Kasuri by Zia’s handpicked judges. Zia reneged on his promise of holding elections within 90 days and ruled as a military dictator until his death in an air crash in 1988. General Mohammad Iqbal Khan served as a joint chief from 1980 to 1984 and was the Chief Martial Law Officer during that time.

In the mid-1970s the Pakistan Army was involved in fighting an uprising in Balochistan. Various Balochi factions, some with the oblique support of the USSR, wanted independence or at least greater provincial rights. The rebellion was put down on the behest of the Bhutto government but the Army suffered heavy casualties. After Bhutto was deposed, the province returned to normalcy under General Rahimuddin.

In the 1980s, Pakistani armed forces co-operated with the United States to provide arms, ammunition and intelligence assistance to Afghan mujahideen who were fighting the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. The U.S. supplied modern military equipment to Pakistan.

During the 1st Gulf War Pakistan Army contributed troops for the defence of Saudi Arabia against possible Iraqi retaliation. Although Pakistan Army saw few actions their still its performance was remarkable. The 153 Lt AirDefence (GM/SP) Regiment deployed in Tabuk scored multiple hits on number of Iraqi Scuds and provided round the clock Air Defence protection to Saudi Troops in the Area.

1999–present[edit]

Army Welfare Trust, Rawalpindi

A Pakistan army soldier Keeping watch at Baine Baba Ziarat in Swat

Pakistani forces after victory in Operation Black Thunderstorm.

In October 1999, after the Kargil War ended with the unconditional withdrawal of the Pakistani forces from the Indian controlled peaks, the Pakistan Army overthrew a democratically elected government for the fourth time, resulting in additional sanctions being applied against Pakistan, leading to General Pervez Musharraf coming to power in a bloodless coup. However, this time Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif sacked Musharraf when he was on his way to Pakistan from Colombo. He dismissed the Army Chief and appointed General Ziauddin Butt as Army Chief when Musarraf’s plane was in the air. That was not enough, the plane was not allowed to land at the Karachi Airport and barricades were erected on the runway. The corps commanders acted swiftly across Pakistan, particularly in Karachi and Islamabad. Brigadiar Muzaffar Usmani took control of Karachi Airport and arrested the Inspector General of Sind Police, Rana Maqbool Ahmed. Musharraf stepped down as President in August 2008. On 30 July 2009, the Pakistan Supreme Court ruled that Musharraf’s imposition of Emergency Rule in 2007 was unconstitutional.[20]

After the September 11 attacks in the United States, Pakistan joined the US-led War on Terrorand helped the United States armed forces by severing ties with the Taliban and immediately deploying 72,000 troops along Pakistan’s western border to capture or kill Taliban and al-Qaida militants fleeing from Afghanistan. On the north western front, Pakistan initially garrisoned its troops in military bases and forts in the tribal areas. In May 2004 clashes erupted between the Pakistani troops and al-Qaeda’s and other militants joined by local rebels and pro-Taliban forces. However, the offensive was poorly coordinated and the Pakistan Army suffered heavy casualties, while public support for the attack quickly evaporated. After a two-year conflict from 2004 until 2006, the Pakistani military negotiated a ceasefire with the tribesmen from the region in which they pledged to hunt down al-Qaeda members, stop the Talibanisation of the region and stop attacks in Afghanistan and Pakistan. However, the militants did not hold up their end of the bargain and began to regroup and rebuild their strength from the previous two years of conflict.

Militants took over the Lal Masjid in Islamabad. After a six-month standoff fighting erupted again in July 2007 when the Pakistani military decided to use force to end the Lal Masjid threat. Once the operation ended, the newly formed Pakistani Taliban, an umbrella group of all militants based in FATA, vowed revenge and launched a wave of attacks and suicide bombings which erupted all over North-West Pakistan and major Pakistani cities, including Karachi, throughout 2007.

The militants then expanded their base of operations and moved into the neighbouring Swat Valley, where they imposed Sharia law. The Pakistan Army launched an offensive to re-take the Swat Valley in 2007, but was unable to clear it of the militants who had fled into the mountains and waited for them to leave before taking over the valley again. The militants then launched another wave of terrorist attacks inside Pakistan. The Pakistani government and military tried another peace deal with the militants in Swat Valley in 2008. This was roundly criticised in the West as abdicating to the militants. After initially pledging to lay down their arms if Sharia Law was implemented, the Pakistani Taliban subsequently used the Swat Valley as a springboard to launch further attacks into neighbouring regions, reaching to within 60 kilometres (37 mi) of Islamabad.

Pakistan Army Troops on Routine Patrol

Public opinion then turned decisively against the Pakistani Taliban. This opinion was highlighted following the release of a video showing the flogging of a girl by the Pakistani Taliban in Swat Valley. Similar events and terrorist attacks finally forced the Pakistan Army to launch a decisive attack against the Taliban occupying Swat Valley in April 2009, after having received orders from the political leadership.[21] After heavy fighting the Swat Valley was largely pacified by July 2009, although isolated pockets of Taliban remained in the area.

The next phase of Pakistan Army’s offensive was the formidable Waziristan region. A US drone attack killed the leader of the Pakistani Taliban, Baitullah Mehsud, in August. A power struggle engulfed the Pakistani Taliban during September, but by October a new leader had emerged, Hakimullah Mehsud. Under his leadership, the Pakistani Taliban launched another wave of terrorist attacks throughout Pakistan, killing hundreds of people. After a few weeks of air strikes, artillery and mortar attacks, 30,000 troops moved on South Waziristan, in a three pronged attack. The Pakistan Army re-took South Waziristan and is currently thinking of expanding the campaign to North Waziristan.

On April 2012 an avalanche struck the 6th Northern Light Infantry Battalion headquarters in Ghyari sector of Siachen, entrapping 135 soldiers.[22]

UN Peacekeeping Missions[edit]

A Pakistani UNOSOM armed convoy making the rounds.

In the wake of the new world power equilibrium a more complex security environment has emerged. It is characterised by growing national power politics and state implosions which have necessitated involvement of the United Nations peace keeping forces for conflict resolution.

The United Nations has been undertaking peace keeping operations since its inception, but the need for employment of peace keeping forces has increased significantly since the Gulf War. In 1992 there were 11,000 Blue Berets deployed around the world, by the end of the year the figure rose to 52,000. Presently it exceeds 80,000 troops.

  • UN Operation in Congo (ONUC) 1960–1964
  • UN Security Force in New GuineaWest Irian (UNSF) 1962–1963
  • UN Yemen Observer Mission Yemen (UNYOM) 1963–1964
  • UN Transition Assistance Group in Namibia (UNTAG) 1989–1990
  • UN Iraq–Kuwait Observer Mission (UNIKOM) 1991–2003
  • UN Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) 1993–1996
  • UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) 1992–1993
  • UN Operations in Somalia (UNOSOM) 1992–1995
  • UN Protection Forces in Bosnia (UNPROFOR) 1992–1995
  • UN Observer Mission for Rawanda (UNAMIR) 1993–1996
  • UN Verification Mission in Angola (UNAVEM III) 1995–1997
  • UN Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia(UNTAES) 1996–1997
  • UN Mission of Observers in Prevlaka (UNMOP) 1996–2002
  • UN Assistance Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) 2001–2005
  • UN Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) 1999-to-date

The table below shows the current deployment of Pakistani Forces in UN Peacekeeping missions.

Start of operation Name of Operation Location Conflict Contribution
1999 United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of Congo Second Congo War 3,556 Troops.[23]
2003 United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) Liberia Liberia Second Liberian Civil War 2,741 Troops.[23]
2004 United Nations Operation in Burundi ONUB Burundi Burundi Burundi Civil War 1,185 Troops.[23]
2004 United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire (UNOCI) Ivory Coast Côte d’Ivoire Civil war in Côte d’Ivoire 1,145 Troops.[23]
2005 United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS) Sudan Sudan Second Sudanese Civil War 1,542 Troops.[23]
Staff/Observers 191 Observers.[23]
  • The total amount of troops serving currently in peacekeeping missions is 10,173 (as of March 2007).

Organization[edit]

Pakistan Army
Flag of the Pakistani Army.svg
Leadership
Chief of Army Staff
Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee
Organisation and Components
Structure of the Pakistan Army
Frontier Corps
Frontier Works Organisation
Special Service Group
Army Cantonment Board
Pakistan Armoured Corps
Installations
General Headquarters
Pakistan Military Academy
Command and Staff College
National Defence University
Personnel
Army Ranks of Pakistan
Pakistan Army Generals
Equipment
Modern equipment
History and Traditions
Military history of Pakistan
UN Peacekeeping Missions
Pakistan Army FC
Awards, Decorations and Badges
Awards and Decorations
Nishan-e-Haider

Command Structure[edit]

The President of Pakistan is the civilian supreme commander of the Pakistan Armed Forcesby statute, while the Prime Minister of Pakistan served as the Chief Executive of Pakistan Armed Forces, both people-elected civilians, Prime Minister and President, maintains thecivilian control of the military. The Chief of the Army Staff (COAS), a four-star general, is the highest general officer (unless the four-star general is Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee), a field and operational commander as well as a highest army four-star general officer, directs the non-combat and combatant operations from army combatant headquarters in Rawalpindi, near Islamabad. The Principal Staff Officers (PSO) assisting him in his duties at the Lieutenant-General level include a Chief of General Staff (CGS), under whom the Military Operations and Intelligence Directorates function; the Chief of Logistics Staff (CLS); the Adjutant General (AG); the Quarter-Master General (QMG); the Inspector General of Training and Evaluation (IGT and E); the Military Secretary (MS); and the Engineer-in-Chief, a top army topographer. A major reorganisation in GHQ was done in September 2008 under General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani, when two new PSO positions were introduced: the Inspector General Arms and the Inspector General Communications and IT, thus raising the number of PSO’s to eight.[24]

The headquarters function also includes the Judge Advocate General (JAG), and the Comptroller of Civilian Personnel, the Engineer-in-Chief of the Corps of Engineers who is also head of Military Engineering Service (MES), all of them also report to the Chief of the Army Staff. Although most of the officer corps were generally Muslim by the 1970s, there were still serving Christian officers the highest rank being attained by Major General Julian Peter who served as the General Officer Commanding of a Division and as general staff officer at Army Headquarters up-till 2006.

Commissioned officers rank[edit]

The rank structure is patterned on the British Army model. It consists of commissioned officersnon-commissioned officers and the junior commissioned officers.

Commissioned Officers Ranks of the Pakistan Army
Pay grade O-10 O-9 O-8 O-7 O-6 O-5 O-4 O-3 O-2 O-1
Insignia General pak army.jpg
US-O10 insignia.svg
Lt Gen.jpg
US-O9 insignia.svg
Maj Gen.jpg
US-O8 insignia.svg
Brigadier pak army.jpg
US-O7 insignia.svg
Colonel pak army.jpg Lt Col.jpg Major pak army.jpg Captain pak army.jpg Lieutenant.jpg 2 lieutenant.jpg
Title General Lieutenant-General Major-General Brigadier Colonel Lieutenant-Colonel Major Captain Lieutenant Second Lieutenant
Abbreviation Gen LGen MGen Brig Col LCol Maj Capt Lt SLt
NATO Code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1
Rank Hierarchy 4-star General 3-star General 2-star General 1-star Officer

Non-commissioned officers wear respective regimental color chevrons on the right sleeve. Centre point of the uppermost chevron must remain 10 cm from the point of the shoulder. Company / battalion appointments wear the appointments badges on the right wrist.

Structure of Non-Commissioned Officers Ranks of Pakistan Army
Pay grade OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
Insignia Batal H M.jpg Batallion Qu Havildar.jpg Comp Havildar Major.jpg Comp Quat Havildar.jpg Havildar.jpg Naik.jpg Lance Naik.jpg No insignia No insignia
Title Battalion Havildar Major Battalion Quartermaster Havildar Company Havildar Major Company Quartermaster Havildar Havildar Naik Lance Naik Sepoy No Equivalent
Abbreviation BHM BQMH CHM CQMH HLD NK LN S NE
NATO Code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
Junior Commissioned Officer Ranks
Insignia Subedar Major.jpg Subedar.jpg Naib Subedar.jpg
Title Subedar Major (infantry and other arms)/Risaldar Major (cavalry and armour) Subedar (infantry and other arms)/Risaldar (cavalry and armour) Naib Subedar (infantry and other arms)/Naib Risaldar (cavalry and armour)

Structure of Army units[edit]

The Pakistan Army is divided into two main branches, which are Arms and Services.

Operational Commands[edit]

The army operates three commands during peace time. Each command is headed by General Officer Commanding-in-Chief with the rank of Lieutenant General. Each command is directly affiliated to the Army HQ in Rawalpindi.

According to Globalsecurity.org, drawing on Pakistani media sources, three commands, supervising a number of corps each, have been formed: Northern Command, Central Command, and Southern Command.[25][26]

Corps[edit]

corps is an army field formation responsible for a zone within a command theatre. There are three types of corps in the Pakistani Army: Strike, Holding and Mixed. A command generally consists of two or more corps. A corps has Army divisions under its command. The Corps HQ is the highest field formation in the army.

There are 13 Corps in Pakistan Army. 9 of these Corps are composed of Infantry, Mechanised, Armoured, Artillery and Anti-Tank divisions and brigades. Army Air Defence Command is another Corps of Pakistan Army which plays the role of Anti-Aircraft Artillery whereas Army Aviation Corps provides air support to Pakistan Army. Army Strategic Forces Command is responsible for training, deployment and activation of Pakistan’s nuclear missiles. The last Corps is called the Northern Area Command which is Headquartered at Gilgit and is reported to have 5 Infantry Brigades.[27][28][29][30][31][32]

Forces in action or poised for action include XI Corps, which has been heavily engaged in fighting the Taliban and other extremists along Pakistan’s north-western border, and 323rd Infantry Brigade, part of Forces Command Northern Areas, on the Siachen Glacier.

The peace time commands are given below in their correct order of raising, and location (city).

Flag of the Pakistani Army.svg Headquarters, Pakistani ArmyRawalpindi, Punjab

    • I Corps – headquartered at Mangla Cantonment
      • 6th Armoured Division headquartered at Gujranwala
      • 17th Infantry Division headquartered at Kharian
      • 37th Infantry Division headquartered at Kharian
      • 11th Independent Armoured Brigade
      • Independent Air Defense Brigade
      • Independent Artillery Brigade
      • Independent Infantry Brigade
    • II Corps – headquartered at Multan
      • 1st Armoured Division headquartered at Multan
      • 14th Infantry Division headquartered at Okara
      • 40th Infantry Division headquartered at Okara
      • Independent Armoured Brigade
      • Independent Air Defense Brigade
      • Independent Artillery Brigade
      • Independent Infantry Brigade
    • IV Corps – headquartered at Lahore
      • 2nd Artillery Division headquartered at Gujranwala
      • 10th Infantry Division headquartered at Lahore
      • 11th Infantry Division headquartered at Lahore
      • 3rd Independent Armoured Brigade
      • 212th Infantry Brigade
      • Independent Artillery Brigade
    • XXX Corps – headquartered at Gujranwala
      • 8th Infantry Division headquartered at Sialkot
      • 15th Infantry Division headquartered at Sialkot
      • 2nd Independent Armoured Brigade
      • Independent Anti-Tank Brigade
      • Independent Artillery Brigade
    • XXXI Corps – headquartered at Bahawalpur
      • 26th Mechanised Division headquartered atBahawalpur[33]
      • 35th Infantry Division headquartered at Bahawalpur
      • 13th Independent Armoured Brigade
      • 101st Independent Infantry Brigade

Other Field Formations[edit]

  • Division: An Army Division is an intermediate between a Corps and a Brigade. It is the largest striking force in the army. Each Division is headed by [General Officer Commanding] (GOC) in the rank of Major General. It usually consists of 15,000 combat troops and 8,000 support elements. Currently, the Pakistani Army has 29 Divisions including 20 Infantry Divisions, 2 Armoured Divisions, 2 Mechanized Divisions, 2 Air Defence Divisions, 2 Strategic Divisions and 1 Artillery Division. Each Division composes of several Brigades.
  • Brigade: A Brigade generally consists of around 3,000 combat troops with supporting elements. An Infantry Brigade usually has 3 Infantry Battalions along with various Support Arms & Services. It is headed by a Brigadier, equivalent to a Brigadier General in some armies. In addition to the Brigades in various Army Divisions, the Pakistani Army also has 7 Independent Armoured Brigades, 5 Independent Artillery Brigades, 3 Independent Infantry Brigades, 3 Anti-Tank Brigades. These Independent Brigades operate directly under the Corps Commander (GOC Corps).
  • Regiment: A regiment is commanded by a Colonel.
  • Battalion: A Battalion is commanded by a Lieutenant-Colonel and is the Infantry’s main fighting unit. It consists of more than 900 combat personnel.
  • Company: Headed by the Major/Captain, a Company comprises about 120–150 soldiers.
  • Platoon: An intermediate between a Company and Section, a Platoon is headed by a Lieutenant or depending on the availability of Commissioned Officers, a Junior Commissioned Officer, with the rank of Subedar or Naib-Subedar. It has a total strength of about 30–36 troops.
  • Section: Smallest military outfit with a strength of about 9–13 personnel. Commanded by a Non-commissioned officer of the rank ofHavildar Major or Sergeant Major.

Regiments[edit]

Pakistan’s Honor Guards at the Aiwan-e-SadrIslamabad

There are several battalions or units associated together in an infantry regiment. The infantry regiment in the Pakistani Army is an administrative military organisation and not a field formation. All the battalions of a regiment do not fight together as one formation, but are dispersed over various formations, viz. brigades, divisions and corps. An infantry battalion serves for a period of time under a formation and then moves to another, usually in another sector or terrain when its tenure is over. Occasionally, battalions of the same regiment may serve together for a tenure.

Most of the infantry regiments of the Pakistani Army originate from the old British Indian Army and recruit troops from a region or of specific ethnicities.

Regiments of the Pakistani Army include:

Special forces[edit]

The Special Services Group (SSG) is an independent commando regiment/corps of the Pakistan Army. It is an elite special operationsforce similar to the United States Army Special Forces (Green Berets) and the British Army‘s SAS.

Special Service Group Commandos of Pakistan Army

Official numbers are put at 2,100 men, in 3 battalions; however the actual strength isclassified.[34] It is estimated to have been increased to 4 Battalions, with the eventual formation of 2 Brigades of Special Forces (6 Battalions).

Combat doctrine[edit]

A Pakistan Army soldier deployed during an exercise and armed with the Heckler & Koch G3, the PA’s standard assault rifle.

The Pakistan Army has developed a doctrine called the Riposte which is a limited “offensive-defence”[35] doctrine. It has refined it consistently starting in 1989 during the “Exercise Zarb-e-Momin”. This doctrine is fully focused towards Pakistan’s archenemy, India.

The doctrine is derived from several factors:[36]

  1. The vulnerability of Pakistan is that so many of its major population centres and politically and military sensitive targets lie very close to the border with India. As such Pakistan can ill-afford to lose large territories to an Indian attack.
  2. ‘Strategic depth’ in the form of a friendly Afghanistan is deemed vital by military planners.
  3. India has substantially enhanced its offensive capabilities, with the Cold Start Doctrine. Any counterattack would be very tricky against the large number of Indian troops involved. The response of the Pakistani army includes the development of theNasr missile.
  4. Holding formations in both India and Pakistan can man their forward defensive positions and fortifications in less than 24 hours. However, Corps level reserves with large stockpiles of munitions will take between 24 to 72 hours for mobilisation after being given their orders. In this regard, both armies will be evenly matched in the first 24 hours since the Pakistani units have to travel a shorter distance to their forward positions.

Pakistan Army Contingent in Cambrian Patrol Exercise.

This doctrine entails Pakistan in the event of hostilities with India will not wait for the enemy’s offensive, but rather launch an offensive of its own. The offensive will be a limited advance along narrow fronts with the aim of occupying territory near the border to a depth of 40–50 km. Since Indian forces will not reach their maximum strength near the border for another 48–72 hours, Pakistan might have parity or numerical superiority against the Indians.

The Pakistani Army hopes to accomplish three things under this strategy:[36]

  1. The enemy is kept off-balance as it will be tied up containing the Pakistani offensive into its territory rather than launching an offensive into Pakistani territory.
  2. The Pakistani Army hopes to contain the fighting on the Indian side of the border so that any collateral or other damage will be suffered by India.
  3. Indian territory of strategic importance once seized, will give the Pakistani Army a bargaining chip to be used in the aftermath of a ceasefire brought about by international pressure after 3–4 weeks of fighting.
  4. The use of tactical battlefield nuclear missile such as Nasr missile that provide maximal damage against massed troops for extremely limited collateral casualties.

KashmirLine of Control and the Northern Punjab areas are heavily fortified and ill-suited for large mechanised offensives. The most likely area where Pakistan might launch its offensive is the semi-desert and desert sectors in southern Punjab and Sindh provinces.

To supplement this doctrine, the Army in the 1990s created a strong centralised corps of reserves for its formations. The force is known as Army Reserve South and is a grouping of several powerful Corps from Pakistan’s Order of Battle. These formations have been rapidly equipped with assets needed for mechanised capability. These reserve formations are dual-capable, meaning they can be used for offensive as well as defensive (holding) purposes. Pakistan has also increased its ammunitionfuel and other military stockpiles to last for 45 days in case of a conflict. During the 1965 war for instance, Pakistan only had 13-day reserves which hampered its military operations.

The possibility of a major war of the sort against which earlier doctrines had eveolved came into question after May 1998 when both sides overtly demonstrated their nuclear capability. The Kargil conflict and the military standoff with India in 2002 led to various stability theories being viewd with scepticism on both sides. India realised the need to drastically reduce the time taken to build up its forces from all over the country towards its western borders and strike early while Pakistani defences on the one hand and diplomatic manoeuvre on the other were still unprepared. To this end, the Cold Start Doctrine and its tactical extension, proactive operations were developed and practised by the Indian Army and later the Navy and the Airforce variants thereof. Against cold start and proactive operations, Pakistan began developing its response at the joint services level with notable changes in how the land forces viewed existential and future threat. The intellectual powerhouse for this was led by the Chielf of the Army Staff, the commandant of the Armed Forces War College, selected corps commanders and a team of senior brigadiers. The Azm-e-Nau (New Resolve)[37][38] series of war games were conducted and a new doctrine evolved. These exrcises and war-games culminated in the massive Azm-e-Nau 3 which was conducted in the deserts of Bahawalpur and upper Punjab in April and May 2010. The Army set up a doctrines concepts and development division under a top brigadier to evelove high, mid and low level doctrines for the army. The Pakistan Army Doctrine, Pakistan Defence Doctrine and a series of publications were developed between 2010 and 2011. Pakistan Army Doctrine with its main authors General Hanif and Brigadier General Zaidi is an opensource document and as such marks a turning point in Pakistan Army’s approach to warfare and warfighting in the wake of new challenges. Traditionally secretive and protective of its doctrines, the Pakistan Army Doctrine, when it becomes openly available, would be the first time that Pakistan allows greater insight to its strategic thinking, workings and the use of military power.

Involvement in Pakistani Society[edit]

Pakistan Army’s MI-17 helicopter airlifting survivors of flood in northern areas of Pakistan

The Pakistan Army has played an integral part in the civil society of Pakistan, almost since its inception.[39] In 1996, General Jehangir Karamat described Pakistan armed forces’ relations with the society:

In my opinion, if we have to repeat of past events then we must understand that Military leaders can pressure only up to a point. Beyond that their own position starts getting undermined because the military is after all is a mirror image of the civil society from which it is drawn.
—General Jehangir Karamat on civil society–military relations, [39]

In times of natural disaster, such as the great floods of 1992 or the October 2005 devastatingearthquake, army engineers, medical and logistics personnel, and the armed forces played a major role in bringing relief and supplies.

The army also engaged in extensive corporate activities. Most of these enterprises, such as stud and dairy farms, were for the army’s own use, but others performed functions in local civilian economy such as bakeries, security services and banking. Army factories produced such goods as sugar, fertiliser, and brass castings and sold them to civilian consumers albeit at prices higher than those charged from military personnel.[40]

Several army organisations operate in the commercial sector across the country. For example, the National Logistics Cell was responsible for trucking food and other goods across the country; the Frontier Works Organization built the Karakoram Highway to China; and the Special Communication Organization maintained communications networks in remote parts of Pakistan. The Pakistan Army has been involved in relief activities not only in Pakistan but also in many other countries of the world, such as the relief activities after Bangladesh was recently hit by floods. The Army also despatched relief to Indonesia, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka after they were hit by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and the resulting tsunami. Both the Pakistan Army and Navy sent ships and helicopters to assist in the tsunami relief operation.

Personnel[edit]

According to the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) the Pakistan Army has an active force of 725,000 personnel in 2013.[3] In addition there were around 500,000 reserves.

Personnel training[edit]

Enlisted ranks[edit]

Most enlisted personnel used to come from rural families, and many have only rudimentary literacy skills, but with the increase in the literacy level the requirements have been raised to Matriculate level (10th Grade). Recruits are processed gradually through a paternalistically run regimental training center, taught the official language, Urdu, if necessary, and given a period of elementary education before their military training actually starts.

In the thirty-six-week training period, they develop an attachment to the regiment they will remain with through much of their careers and begin to develop a sense of being a Pakistani rather than primarily a member of a tribe or a village. Enlisted men usually serve for eighteen years, during which they participate in regular training cycles and have the opportunity to take academic courses to help them advance.

Officer ranks[edit]

Each year, about 320 men and women enter the army bi-annually through the Pakistan Military Academy at Kakul in Abbottabad in theKhyber Pakhtunkhwa; a small number—like doctors and technical specialists—are directly recruited, and are part of the officer corps. The product of a highly competitive selection process, members of the officer corps have completed twelve years of education and spend two years at the Pakistan Military Academy, with their time divided about equally between military training and academic work to bring them up to a baccalaureate education level, which includes English-language skills.

Academic institutions[edit]

The army has twelve other training and educational establishments, including schools concentrating on specific skills such as infantry, artillery, intelligence, engineering, or mountain warfare. The National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) has been established which has absorbed the existing colleges of engineering, signals, electrical engineering and medicine. At the apex of the army training system is the Command and Staff College at Quetta, one of the few institutions inherited from the colonial period. The college offers a ten-month course in tactics, staff duties, administration, and command functions through the division level. Students from foreign countries, including the United States, have attended the school but reportedly have been critical of its narrow focus and failure to encourage speculative thinking or to give adequate attention to less glamorous subjects, such as logistics.[citation needed]

The senior training institution for all service branches is the National Defence University, Islamabad. Originally established in 1971 atRawalpindi, to provide training in higher military strategy for senior officers, the institution was relocated to Islamabad in 1995. It also offers courses that allow civilians to explore the broader aspects of national security. In a program begun in the 1980s to upgrade the intellectual standards of the officer corps and increase awareness of the wider world, a small group of officers, has been detailed to academic training, achieving master’s degrees and even doctorates at universities in Pakistan and abroad.

Pakistani officers were sent abroad during the 1950s and into the 1960s for training in Britain and other Commonwealth countries, and the United States, where trainees numbering well in the hundreds attended a full range of institutions ranging from armoured and infantry schools to the higher staff and command institutions. After 1961 this training was coordinated under the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program, but numbers varied along with the vicissitudes of the United States-Pakistan military relationship. Of some 200 officers being sent abroad annually in the 1980s, over two-thirds went to the United States, but the cessation of United States aid in 1990 entailed suspension of the IMET program. In 1994 virtually all foreign training was in Commonwealth countries. However, after the9/11 attacks, Pakistan again has begun sending officers to US Army schools. Today there are more than 400 officers serving in foreign countries. Officers retire between the ages of fifty-two and sixty, depending on their rank.

Science and Technology[edit]

Apart from conducting military operations, exercises, and military ethics, the Army maintains its own science and technology corps and organisations. Most notable science and engineering corps including Military Engineering Service (MES) Corps of EngineersCorps of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering (EME), and Frontier Works Organisation. Its Army Army Strategic Forces Command served as the primary military organisation in the matters of conducting and directing research on nuclear and space (such a s military satellites) and antiquities. The army cadets and officers who wished to study science and technology are given admission at theCollege of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering (CEME) and the Military College of Engineering where the scientific and military education are being taught by the colleges. The admissions of engineering colleges are not restricted to civilians as they can also gain admission and graduated with engineering and science degrees from there.

Uniforms[edit]

Pakistan Army uniforms closely resemble those of the British armed services. The principal colour is greenish brown. Dress uniforms were worn mostly on formal occasions. The service uniform was worn for daily duty. The service uniform for the ground forces was khaki (sand/tan) cotton. Officers purchased their uniforms, but enlisted personnel received a standard uniform issue, which consisted of service and field uniforms, fatigues, and in some cases, dress uniforms. The uniforms consisted of shirt, trousers, sweater, jacket or blouse, and boots. There is also a white dress uniform. The fatigues were the same for winter and summer. Heavy winter gear was issued as needed. Headgear included a service cap for dress and semi-dress and a field cap worn with fatigues. Army personnel also wear berets, usually worn in lieu of the service cap.

Brown and black and more recently former US BDU style camouflage fatigues are worn by army troop units. The uniform of a Pakistan army soldier exhibits much information i.e.

Recently Pakistan army has introduced digital camouflage pattern in uniform and resized qualification badges,[41] decorations & awards[42] and the ranks.[43]

Ethnic Composition[edit]

Traditionally, the army was a predominantly Punjabi force because of its dominant Population (Punjab is the most populous province of Pakistan, with approximately 45% of the country’s total population). In British India, three districts: JhelumRawalpindi, and Campbellpur (now Attock) dominated the recruitment flows. By 2007 the percentage representation in the Pakistan Army as a whole (officers and Other Ranks or soldiers) was as follows:
Punjabis (including Punjabi-Pashtuns): 51%
Pashtuns: 21%
Sindhis: 13.5%
Kashmiris: 9.11%
Balochis: 3.2%
Minorities: 0.72%.

Extensive efforts have been made to bring Balochis and Sindhis on par with other ethnicities, presently the army recruitment system is enlisting personnel district-wise irrespective of provincial boundaries. This decision has given a fair chance to every citizen of Pakistan to be part of the Pakistan Army as each district possesses a fixed percentage of seats in all branches of the army, as per census records. Large numbers of men from Sind and Balochistan have joined the ranks of the army and have proved their commitment and bravery to the national cause in Kargil and the ongoing global war on terrorism.[40][44]

Women and minorities[edit]

Women have served in the Pakistan Army since its foundation. Currently, there is a sizeable number of Women serving in the army. Most women are recruited in the regular Army to perform medical and educational work. There is also a Women’s Guard section of Pakistan’s National Guard where women are trained in nursing, welfare and clerical work and there are also women recruited in very limited numbers for the Janbaz Force. Only recently has Pakistan began to recruit women for combat positions and the Elite Anti-Terrorist Force In 2007, several female graduates were nominated to be Sky Marshals for Pakistan based airlines.[45] In addition recently eight of the 41 cadets from the Pakistan Military Academy at Kakul became the first women guards of honour.[46] Pakistan is the only country in the Islamic world to have female Major Generals in the Army.[47] Major General Shahida Badsha Pakistan’s first female three-star general[48]

Recruitment is nationwide and the army attempts to maintain an ethnic balance but most enlisted recruits, as in British times, come from a few districts in northern Punjab Province and the adjacent Azad Jammu and Kashmir and the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Pakistan’s Officer Corps are also mostly from Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and of middle-class, rural backgrounds.[citation needed]

Minorities in Pakistan are allowed to sit in all examinations, including the one conducted by Inter Services Selection Board however the proportion of religious minorities in the Pakistan Army is still considerably less.

There have been numerous Christians who have risen to the rank of Brigadier; and in the 1990 the first Christian promoted to the rank of Major General was Julian Peter who commanded the 14th Div in Okara Cantt. In 2009 brigadier Noel Israel Khokhar, was also promoted to rank of Major General. Capt. Hercharn Singh,the first Sikh as Commissioned Officer in Pakistan Army. He was commissioned in Baloch Regiment. Currently, he’s serving as an ADC to a Corps Commander.

Recipients of Nishan-e-Haider[edit]

Nishan-e-Haider; Pakistan’s highest military award.

The Nishan-e-Haider (Urdu: نشان حیدر) (Sign of the Lion) is the highest military award given by Pakistan, ranking above the Hilal-i-Jur’at (Crescent of Courage). Nishan-e-Haider recipients receive an honorary title as a sign of respect: Shaheed meaning martyr for deceased recipients.

Similar to the American Medal of Honor or the British Victoria Cross, it has only been awarded 10 times since 1947:

Name Unit Conflict Date Place of Death
Captain Muhammad Sarwar 2nd Battalion of the Punjab Regiment War of 1947 27 July 1948 UriKashmir
Major Tufail Mohammad 16th Battalion of the Punjab Regiment 1958 Border clash with India 7 August 1958 Lakshmipur District
Major Aziz Bhatti 17th Battalion of the Punjab Regiment War of 1965 10 September 1965 Lahore District
Major Mohammad Akram 4th Battalion of the Frontier Force Regiment War of 1971 1971 East Pakistan
Pilot Officer Rashid Minhas Shaheed No. 2 Squadron Minhas War of 1971 20 August 1971 Thatta, SindhWest Pakistan
Major Shabbir Sharif 6th Battalion of the Frontier Force Regiment War of 1971 6 December 1971 Salmanki SectorKasur
Lance Naik Muhammad Mahfuz 15th Battalion of the Punjab Regiment War of 1971 8 December 1971 Wagah-Attari
Sawar Muhammad Hussain 20th Lancers, Armoured Corps War of 1971 10 December 1971 Zafarwal-Shakargarh
Captain Karnal Sher Khan 12th Battalion of the Northern Light Infantry Kargil War 5 July 1999 Kargil, Indian administered Kashmir
Havaldar Lalak Jan 12th Battalion of the Northern Light Infantry Kargil War 7 July 1999 Kargil, Indian administered Kashmir

Recipients of Foreign awards[edit]

Two Pakistani pilots belonging to the army aviation branch of Pakistan army who carried out a daring rescue of a mountaineer are to be given Slovenia’s top award for bravery. Slovenian, Tomaz Humar got stranded on the western end of the 8,125m Nanga Parbat mountain where he remained for around a week on top of the world’s ninth-highest peak. The helicopter pilots plucked the 38-year-old from an icy ledge 6,000m up the peak known as “killer mountain”.

The Slovenian president has presented Lt Col Rashid Ullah Beg and Lt Col Khalid Amir Rana with the Golden Order for Services in the country’s capital, Ljubljana, for risking their lives during the rescue mission, a Pakistan army statement said.[49]

Beating hundreds of soldiers from major armies of the world, Pakistan Army has won the coveted Gold Medal at the prestigious Cambrian Patrol Exercise held in Wales with participation from armies of India, Australia, Canada, United States and France among others. 750 soldiers across the world descended on the Brecon Beacons in Wales to suffer through one of the toughest exercises ever devised. The Cambrian patrol tested the soldiering skills of the teams as they crossed some of the most arduous terrain one can imagine. According to ISPR, “Rawalpindi Corps team represented Pakistan Army in Exercise Cambrian Patrol – 2010, held from 11–13 October 2010 and by the Grace of Allah, the team showed an excellent performance by winning a Gold Medal in the event, which is a big honour not only for Army but for the country as a whole.”[50][51][52][53][54]

Equipment[edit]

The equipment currently in use by the Pakistan Army is divided into the following main sections: small arms, armour, artillery, aircraft and air defence systems. Most equipment of the Pakistan Army tend to be either of Chinese, European or American designs.

Arms[edit]

The Heckler & Koch G3 is the Pakistan Army’s standard battle rifle, shown here is the G3A3 model.

Weapon Comments
Handguns
Glock 17 Used by Special Services Group as their side arm.
Beretta 92
Glock 26
HK P7
Steyr M9A1 Recently acquired by the SSW.
Tokarev
Sub-machine guns (SMG) and carbines:
Heckler & Koch MP5 Manufactured by POF
Heckler & Koch MP5K Also in use by Airport Security Force and personal security detail of VIPs, manufactured by POF.
FN P90
Battle rifles
Heckler & Koch G3 The PA’s service rifle. G3A3, G3P4 variants in service.
Assault rifles
Type 56 Chinese-manufactured AK-47.[55]
Steyr AUG
Type 81 Assault Rifle Chinese-manufactured
M4 Carbine
FN F2000
Grenades
M67 grenade
Sniper rifles
Dragunov SVD [56]
HK PSG1 [55]
M82 Barret
Steyr SSG 69 [55]
Machine guns
FN MAG
FN Minimi Para
MG3 Manufactured under license by Pakistan Ordnance Factories.[57]
RPD
Grenade launchers
Carl Gustav recoilless rifle
Mk 19 grenade launcher
RPG-7 Manufactured under license by Pakistan Ordnance Factories
RPG-29
Milkor MGL

Armour[edit]

Al-Zarrar MBT

M60 AVLB

Vehicle/System/Aircraft Firm Number in Service Status
Main Battle Tanks (MBT)
Al-Khalid 600[58][59] In service, production and deliveries ongoing, around 600 Al Khalid tanks planned. 300 Al-Khalid ordered initially, later orders for upgraded Al-Khalid I.[60]
T-80UD 320[58][61] 320[62] delivered by Ukraine between 1997 and early 2002, incorporating re-designed T-84 turret.[61]
Type 85-IIAP 275[58][63] 500[citation needed] Type 85-IIAP built under license at Heavy Industries Taxila, later upgraded to Type 85-III.
Al-Zarrar 1400[61] Upgraded form of Type 59-II.[60]
Type 69-II 300,[58]400[61] Produced under license, armed with 105 mm guns.[64]
Type 59 1500,[61]1200[58]
T-54/55 54[61] Some sources say all in reserve storage[58]
Armoured Personnel Carriers (APC)
Hamza Infantry Fighting Vehicle[citation needed]
Al-Fahd Infantry fighting vehicle[citation needed] In Service[citation needed]
Talha[citation needed]Armoured Personnel Carrier Final number to be around 2,000[citation needed]
Sa’ad Armoured Personnel Carrier[citation needed] Currently in production[citation needed]
M113 Armoured Personnel Carrier 1,600[61] In Service
LAZAR-II Mine Resistant APC 3 In Service (More will be Manufactured Under License)
BTR-70/BTR-80 Armoured Personnel Carrier 720[61] In Service[65]
Mohafiz Light Armoured Personnel Carrier  ???[61] In Service & Additional APCs being procured
Otokar Akrep Light Jeep 1,260 In Service[citation needed]
Al Qaswa Logistical Vehicle 500 Being procured
M88 ARV Armoured Recovery Vehicle In Service
Armoured Bridging Vehicles
M60A1 AVLB Armoured Vehicle Launched Bridge In Service
M48 Armoured Vehicle Launched BridgeArmoured Vehicle Launched Bridge In Service

Artillery inventory[edit]

M109 self-propelled howitzer

M115 towed howitzer

M198 towed howitzer

Vehicle/System Calibre Quantity Comments
Self-propelled artillery
M110 203 mm 260[61] Tracked chassis.[61]
M109 (A2/A4/A5) howitzer 155 mm 665[61] Tracked chassis.[61][66]
NORINCOSH1[citation needed] 155 mm 213 6×6 wheeled chassis.[67]
MRLS-Multiple Launch Rocket System
A-100 300mm 100 Confirmed during the recent Azm-e-Nau-3.
KRL-21 155 mm 72 Truck-mounted.
Towed artillery
M115 203 mm 356[61]
MKEK Panter[citation needed] 155 mm 30 Auxiliary power unit can propel the gun at up to 18 km/h.[citation needed]
M198 155 mm 348[61] 95 plus 24 delivered in 1997.[68]
M114 155 mm 244[61]
Type 59I 130 mm 410[61]
Type 54 122 mm 490[61]
M56 105 mm 113[61]
M101 105 mm 216[61]

==Aircraft inventory==

Pakistan Army Mi-17 transport helicopter

Two Pakistan Army AH-1S Cobra attack helicopters at AVN Base, Multan

Pakistan Army operates nearly 400 helicopters alongside several aircraft.

Aircraft/System Role Quantity Comments
AH-1F/S Cobra Attack helicopter 40[69] One squadron supplied in 2010.[70]
IAR 330 Utility helicopter 4
Harbin Y-12 Utility aircraft 2
Cessna Citation Bravo Transport aircraft 2[69]
PAC MFI-17 Mushshak Basic Tranning+Light Attack Manufactured under license byPakistan Aeronautical Complex
Aero Commander 840 Transport aircraft 2[69]
Mil Mi-17 Transport helicopter 85[69]
Bell 206 Jet Ranger Utility helicopter 9[69]13[71]
Bell 412 Utility helicopter 95[72]
Bell UH-1 Huey Utility helicopter 200[73]
Eurocopter AS350 Utility helicopter 10[69]
Eurocopter AS355 Utility helicopter
Aérospatiale SA 330 Puma Utility helicopter 60[69]
Aerospatiale SA.316 Alouette III Utility helicopter 10[69] Being phased out.

Anti-tank missiles[edit]

Anti-tank

Air defence systems[edit]

Man-portable air defence systems
Medium altitude air defence systems
High altitude air defence systems
Anti-aircraft guns

Sports[edit]

The Pakistan Army has a noteworthy sports program with elite athletes in many sports disciplines.[76] An example of the program’s success is its basketball program which regularly provides the Pakistan national basketball team with key players.[77]

References[edit]

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Bibliography

External links[edit]

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Web resources

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